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Nice compilation of sites, disciplines. Thanks.
Wagner PD
Brazzaville , Texas USA - Sunday, September 02, 2018 at 18:32:36 (PDT)
nice stuff
Akako Aiya
saitama, Saitama Japan - Friday, June 05, 2020 at 00:32:03 (PDT)
You mentioned back in your dangerous maglev video that you'd like to try and see if a magnet would float mid-air if you put it below the copper tubes. Did you ever see if that worked?
USA - Saturday, April 25, 2020 at 22:44:53 (PDT)
Bill, I have used this technique for years since seeing your video for the first time. Spent most of my life in Seattle area and know the roads in your video well. Now in Las Vegas and using this way virtually every time I hit the freeways. Works all the time. Once allowed 200 cars into the created space and never had to slow down. Thank you so much.
Chris Cumming
Las Vegas, Nevada United States - Saturday, April 25, 2020 at 08:44:10 (PDT)
looking for other people info ....i am an electric person and any info would be helpful as i have my own ideas about this and when i read things like "reputable scientists" know there is no such thing and dismiss as the person being derranged, irrational makes me laugh but so not funny as this is real and seeking answers/help
stephanie foley
Middleton, NS Canada - Sunday, March 29, 2020 at 18:32:08 (PDT)
I live in MN and drive roughly 25 miles to work Eastbound on 212 from Chaska,  until it turns into 62, and I continue on basically to the airport. Between 6 and 7 am I drive the same path backwards. Occasionally taking 35W south to 494 West to 212 West. Between 330-500. I stay in the right lane and back WAY off during my commute home in Eden Prairie because it comes to a complete halt.   However,  I rarely use my brakes,  even in the most severe congestion.  I have had people pass me on the shoulder because the 3 lanes of traffic to my left are nearly at a standstill and I am rolling past them at 5mph with a 300 foot gap in front of me.  I pay attention and typically anyone who passes me from that point on, who take the same exit, are frequently at the first or second light once off the highway.   I love using cruise control and set it about 2-3 mph below the speed limit.  I've arrived at this by starting years ago as a speeder. Then I chose to speed less.  And less, and less.  Once I hit about 2-3 mph below the speed limit,  I rarely needed to deviate from it. Stay right,  stay reasonable.  Traffic engineers unite, in the right lane, at a reasonable speed. 
Kyle card
Chaska, Mn USA - Friday, February 28, 2020 at 08:21:00 (PST)
Are you the william j beaty who added the verse to the song Benson Arizona on Genius Lyrics? If so, I wanted to track you down and say WELL DONE!!!
[ But it wasn't mine. It's by SFX artist Bill Taylor,
I saw a YT video of a cover of Benson Arizona, where the famous "lost third verse" was included. I took it from there. Here it is: "The seasons flick on by seconds on the ship. I take another pull, from the flask that's at my hip. The mighta-beens and the never-weres can drive a man insane. I think I'll stay out in the Void, 'cause Benson's not the same." See also a brief Bill Taylor interview about Benson Arizona.
Finally, when I was trapped in a storm of incredible syncronicities, I was looking at this $1 golf cap I got from a sales pile years ago. Hawaiian flowers, and a logo "Kartchner Caverns." I'd always wondered about that. So I went online. Found a site for Kartchner Caverns State Park ...LOCATED IN BENSON ARIZONA WTF!!!! OK now go and enjoy Fan film THE MAKING OF 'DARK STAR' -billb]

Irvine, CA United States - Saturday, February 08, 2020 at 14:02:34 (PST)
Hello, As a freelance programmer i would like to share my experience to find best job online from online marketplace which is more specific to find php freelance developer, please add in list, it will be use full. thank you khuman
Baroda, Gujarat India - Thursday, February 06, 2020 at 19:06:14 (PST)
Hello Bill, We have been corresponding via Quora. I just realized that long ago you had already used the term EM field energy instead of EM wave..... And here I have been pulling my hair why I felt the same but couldn't really put it in words. And in the meantime why I couldn't stop reading pages after pages after pages of everything you had to say about what electricity. It all started when on fine day I woke up and suddenly came to me, almost angry... " what the hell is electricity" and somehow I stumbled on your site... I am far from being superstitious and the one main reason, there is no need at all. One doesn't have to be superstitious to see the real superstition. Life itself. :-) Yea, you are one of the finest crackpot worth loving. :-) And yea you are in Seattle. How unreal can it get. Do you have a Facebook presence?
[ Only a slight amt of facebook , mostly I'm over on -billb ]

Ali M.
Yakima, WA USA - Thursday, January 30, 2020 at 19:59:02 (PST)
Re: Why a VDG might create an explosive effect when it discharges. . because the intense and rapid ionization of the air to carry its balance-determined electric charge causes the air to boil with Ions and that outward force of electrons rapidly ionizing from molecule to molecule outward rips through the air gap medium faster than the speed of sound. There will always be a conclusive boom noise when you break the sound barrier or speed of sound with an unbuffered wave front, no?
Matt C
Moreno Valley, CA USA - Saturday, January 25, 2020 at 23:51:05 (PST)
Bill Ive followed you for years and built one of your high voltage assemblies from 3 bottles for education and experiment with my grandson. For almost 22 years I've tested my theory I named The H Theory by Derwood B. Harlow. I have proof of concept now. Let's get together.
Derwood B. Harlow
Plymouth, NH USA - Tuesday, January 07, 2020 at 04:34:42 (PST)
Hello Bill, Finding your joyful website is among the greatest gifts of year 2019, and I look forward to many informative hours here with you in year 2020. Cheers to you Bill for sharing your genius insight with warm hearted clarity. Sincerely, Michael Buhmiller
Michael Buhmiller
Los Angeles, CA USA - Wednesday, December 25, 2019 at 21:31:30 (PST)
Hello Bill, Finding your joyful website is among the greatest gifts of year 2019, and I look forward to many informative hours here with you in year 2020. Cheers to you Bill for sharing your genius insight with warm hearted clarity. Sincerely, Michael Buhmiller
Michael Buhmiller
Los Angeles, CA USA - Wednesday, December 25, 2019 at 21:27:11 (PST)
An important question, as for the wing's lift, why do the airflow spiral sideways while the active force being forward and downward. Shouldn't the turbulance lamina just wash downwardly and forwardly then curl back upwardly which adds more hindrance to the wing as well?
- Sunday, December 22, 2019 at 14:10:12 (PST)
Hello, My name is Pasi Rajamäki and I run an youtube channel called "Magnet Tricks". I have been trying to contact Mr. William Beaty unsuccesfully. I'm planning to do a video collection on different methods of magnetic levitation and I would love to include a video made by Mr. Beaty called "Dangerous High-speed Magnetic Levitation Maglev" in it. I would just like to know whether it would be Ok for Mr. Beaty or not? That's all. All the best Pasi Rajamäki / Magnet Tricks YouTube channel
Pasi Rajamäki
SALO, FINLAND - Thursday, December 19, 2019 at 08:37:55 (PST)
Very cool and weird site leading to fun and appreciation of something beyond “run of the mill”....keep up the good work !!!
M. Vaillant
Ft.Lauderdale, Fl USA - Monday, December 02, 2019 at 23:47:49 (PST)
Thanks Bill.
Davide Taini
Montefiore Conca, RN Italia - Sunday, December 01, 2019 at 17:16:30 (PST)
Haven't seen anything from you for a while. You still around?
Greg W
Ks USA - Wednesday, November 20, 2019 at 14:32:06 (PST)
Hi there! I happened to stumble upon your request for people near the Seattle, WA area who have a strange affinity with electronics. I'm apparently what folks call a SLIder: streets lamps regularly turn on/off when I pass, cars & other automotives behave strangely, etc. I am extremely sensitive to the "buzz" from electronics like TVs, computers, or radios, so I can "hear" them even when muted in another room. I can also feel electric currents when I touch electronics. I can smell ozone during thunderstorms & my hairs will stand on end as if caught by static in the air. I'm VERY interested in any research opportunities & am willing to travel if needed. Any chance to explore this phenomenon. I'm hoping in my lifetime I'll be able to experience merging my consciousness with a machine. I don't have much professional experience but I work with tech at home & I'm in the process of building my own pc. I have a degree in psychology so I'm more inclined towards the organic aspect but I'm fascinated by tech! Thank you in advance, please reach out if you're still interested!
Walla Walla, WA USA - Wednesday, November 20, 2019 at 06:15:49 (PST)
Hi! How can i mail with Pete Skeggs?his website seems to be down. Do you have books about jewish witchcraft?a talmud or picatrix maybe? Thank you very much!
bernd neidenberger
USA - Monday, November 11, 2019 at 09:08:23 (PST)
Hi Just wondering can you actually fix the dead led on livescribe pen and if so how much?
Belfast , UK - Sunday, October 27, 2019 at 15:37:09 (PDT)
I run an educational nonprofit bringing STEM events to schools and libraries, and am currently coordinating the collaborative mobile event Climate Change: Educate & Activate! I'd like to invite Weird Science Salon to help build interactive STEM stations that help people learn about climate Change. Here's a running list of ideas, or you could create your own: Thanks kindly, ~Heidi
Heidi Larsen
Olympia, WA USA - Monday, October 21, 2019 at 10:47:25 (PDT)
You have a nice collection of science projects goin on here! Well done! The website design is a bit out of date tho. I like the infrared googles project. I built a single pixel camera myself and trying to make it available for fellow enthusiasts. That will make it possible to see through not just infrared but thermal, microwave, thz, rf googles! Anyway, keep up the good work! Dan
Daniel Csati
Sarnen, Ow Switzerland - Saturday, October 12, 2019 at 00:01:48 (PDT)
The URL supplied leads to a crowd fundraising site. However I am not asking for donations (as such). But this is a good way to convey to you the ideas and actions that I am trying to popularize: "magnetic" people and using the 256 channel EEG to see which parts of their brain is involved in the voluntary activity to adhere and release smooth solids of ANY composition to their skin. (Clothing negates this effect.) Then, tracing the nerve connections from these brain locations, the biological cell assemblages producing these effects may be located. Neuromodulation machinery might be able to induce the "magnetic" effect in ordinary people. Anyhow, (as you scroll down on the URL provided), you will see the tie-in with the Fifth Fundamental Force. Thanks. Ivan
Ivan Lay
Cagayan se Oro, Philippines - Wednesday, August 21, 2019 at 00:15:38 (PDT)
Hi I really liked your website. I hope you are keeping it up to date and are working on it in 2019 too.
Irina Corobchenko
Chelyabinsk, Chelyabinskiy region Russia - Friday, August 09, 2019 at 00:48:26 (PDT)
Most people are unaware, but Bill was the first to start then massive trend of magnet balls is basically all over the internet now. He was the first to make a fullerene out of magnets.
Shihan Qu
Denver, CO USA - Monday, July 29, 2019 at 13:04:15 (PDT)
Hi, Just wanted to ask if I’ve reached the right person for this website? If so, thanks so much for the resource. I saw you mentioned “online scams” on Science Hobbyist’s website above. I’ve been looking for some content about online shopping safety because we at CouponChief came up with an up-to-date cyber security guide for consumers. Let me know if you’re interested in seeing it, and I’ll forward along the link to the resource. And perhaps it’s worth linking to along with the other resources on your website? Hoping to hear from you! :) Andrea
Andrea Ramirez
Incline Village, NV United States - Wednesday, July 10, 2019 at 05:56:41 (PDT) shortened URL... shortened URL... Or, try these alternate locations... shortened URL... Or, as a PDF... shortened URL... And its companion text on theory... shortened URL... Or, as a PDF... shortened URL... I simplified my presentation on stack-exchange (by comparison to the eBook), plus I updated that question (today) to become a rhetorical question in which I practically answer myself (since no one else has ever answered it) using knowledge gained from other questions on that site plus Quora. {I figured this would happen. It usually does.} In that question is the shortened version of my device in that I give everything about it without talking too much. shortened URL... And I saved that question onto my website in case it gets deleted (again)... shortened URL... And archived an earlier version of this new rewrite (the saved version on my website is more up to date)... shortened URL...
USA - Saturday, June 29, 2019 at 17:25:03 (PDT)
Antigravity, engine and experiments with a flying saucer.
Pavel Kandyba
Київ, no UA - Saturday, June 22, 2019 at 22:10:47 (PDT)
Hey! Just found your website and I'm excited to explore it! I love science, especially the more dangerous and adult oriented DIY stuff. Thanks for hosting this! Not enough people do!
Mario Sandoval (aka Mark Sierra)
Kennesaw, GA USA - Friday, June 14, 2019 at 18:48:39 (PDT)
Greetings. Have been reading your site a very long time: a project of mine, encouraged quite a lot by your site: Many thanks! J.E.B.
Jonathan E. Brickman
Topeka, KS USA - Tuesday, June 11, 2019 at 03:48:25 (PDT)
Hi there On June 2nd 2019, my collegue, Aśka and I were out walking on an Isle near Skye, Scotland. We were caught up in a great storm and later together witnessed a lightning phenomena known as ball lightning. This is a type of lightning that is as of yet still a source of mystery to scientists and only 5% of the population have ever claimed to have witnessed the miraculous sight. I read an article that mentioned your interest in the subject. We have prepared a short record about the experience of recently seeing the lightning ball and would like to know if such an article is of interest to you? Also if you have any questions about our experience we would be happy to speak with you further. Thank you and be well, Yours sincerely, Jacqueline
Jack Charlesworth
UK - Thursday, June 06, 2019 at 10:52:42 (PDT)
I am in the Dallas, Texas area but I have a lot of unexplained powers and the ability the bend physical laws in this dimension. I experience this spark phenomenon as well that you have referenced. My mood directly correlates to the performance of any computer machine I am using at the time. I am a very open minded person just searching for answers. My powers are far greater and more expansive than those, that is only like 1%. If you can help or provide guidance for me on how to develop and grow or test these gifts I would appreciate anything you have to offer. Thank you for your time. Namaste
Nathaniel Kulik
Addison, TX USA - Thursday, May 23, 2019 at 12:05:41 (PDT)
Nice Post My name is Charlie Wilson and thanks for sharing this information. Best Web and Mobile Application solution provider company Locus Rags. Thanks.
Victoria, florida USA - Tuesday, April 02, 2019 at 23:24:51 (PDT)
Hi Bill, I wanted to thank you for maintaining the ARCHIVE OF REPAIR TRICKS, TROUBLESHOOTING, USEFUL INFO, ETC at U of W CES. Some months ago I purchased, at auction, an Eppendorf 5415R centrifuge. When it arrived, it wouldn't power up. I used your instructions for replacing the 22 mf capacitor on the main circuit board, and it is now fully functional. What would have been an expensive boat anchor is now a valued piece of lab equipment!
[ That's been my dream, find a huge pile of dead Eppendorf centrifuges, replace the dead capacitor, then sell them for five hundred bucks each! But I never see any of these "parts only" units on eBay. Do people just throw them away when they die after a few years? -billb]

Gord Hutchinson
Victoria, BC Canada - Sunday, March 10, 2019 at 10:30:40 (PDT)
Hey, thank you so much for this website! I had been searching for hours to find the answer why you cannot focus an LED as tightly as a laser diode. Thanks to your website (and quite some research in geometric optics), I now know it. It is insane when you look how few people know and how many misconceptions there are. I had even asked a professor who teaches laser technology and he couldn´t give me a straight answer. So thanks a lot again for your efforts with this side! Keep up the good work. Regards René
Frankfurt, Germany - Friday, February 15, 2019 at 03:56:07 (PST)
Hello, you might have interest in this account of weird science in ancient Egypt. The royal mace [club??] was detailed as a magic weapon with a flame before it glowing like the sun. Not just a club. cheers, Bill
Bill Gleeson
Melbourne, VIC Australia - Sunday, February 10, 2019 at 16:55:53 (PST)
Bill, what a wonderful site. Reading about Heaviside (book by Mahon) discovered that electrical energy flows mostly outside the wire. This went against everything I had been taught (as a Navy electrician), though I had always wondered how that energy could travel thru a solid wire at near light speeds. Tried to find confirmation online but everything was the freight cars or balls in a pipe, except for you! Thanks for the knowledge, but most of all the snorts of laughter reading your stuff! Keep it up!!!
Henry Pate
Ponce Inlet, Florida United States - Thursday, January 24, 2019 at 14:55:40 (PST)
Achieved overunity. Achieved perpetual motion. 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics do not apply! Never did! Speaking with patent attorney, have a meeting with IBM. In need of investor for beta prototype. Latest version charged cell phone for 90 days before disconning. My attorney witnessed it. Please invest. Will pay huge! Think of the potential... This is not a joke, nor scam, not wild idea, nor hoax. Will meet with your team and demonstrate.
Seattle, Wa USA - Monday, December 17, 2018 at 21:39:34 (PST)
I know your site is OLD, and probably not maintained/monitored any more, but I'd like to comment anyway. Reading through, my observations agree with all of yours, apart from one: in order for the merges to work, space must be left between cars, however, all drivers need to be PAYING ATTENTION and adjusting their position dynamically with respect to each other. Too often, I am leaving a gap for people to use, and the merging traffic is just staring blankly ahead and not using the gap, or expecting me to fall back even more instead of them moving up a little bit and using the existing space. This lack of attention is even more apparent when someone has 1/2 mile of space ahead and behind, and no cars for 1/2 a mile in the lane next to them, but they'll still hit the brakes before making their lane change, or when they're attempting to merge with traffic while driving significantly slower than existing traffic, and again just staring straight ahead and expecting existing traffic to make way.
Patrick Warnement
San Diego, CA United States - Sunday, December 02, 2018 at 17:19:57 (PST)
Thank you for the plans for the ultra-simple generator. My daughter (with some help from me) built it for her 3rd grade science fair project. We actually did 400 turns of copper wire. We couldn't find the bulbs you suggested, but tried 3mm LED light and it worked (it actually flashes, which I assume is due to the bulb being a DC bulb and the generator being AC). Thanks so much, my daughter was interested in wind turbines and your site helped her learn a lot about how electricity is generated.
Tomas Rodriguez
Austin, TX United States - Thursday, November 29, 2018 at 13:00:47 (PST)
Any possible connection between your experiment and threads entering the body.. ( Morgellons ) ? An excessive number of "threads" causing a crawling feeling..itchy and irritating the skin and then pulling "thread" from under the skin.
J Hanley
MO USA - Sunday, November 25, 2018 at 04:17:48 (PST)
I am an engineer at Wireless Power Technologies. I have studied Tesla for five years. I have transmitted power and data signals, it all really works when you discover the undisclosed information.

I am writing a book on my discoveries including how the electric fields move over the earth with the longitudinal sound-like waves.

Everything works as Tesla said
Martin Poole
Norfolk, VIRGINIA United States - Wednesday, November 21, 2018 at 06:29:23 (PST)

Than you for sharing information.keep it up good work
Ashley Rose
Dubai, Dubai United Arab Emirates - Thursday, November 15, 2018 at 07:39:04 (PST)
It's great to see ordinary folks are still interested in doing science themselves, as opposed to just watching others do it on screen, so many thanks for the encouragement you provide for this.

Just thought you might like to know about a free open source instrumentation controller we've launched at Sourceforge, aimed at physics and electronics experiment control and data capture, particularly for folks with older or mixed vintage equipment. If you get round to reading this and taking a look at it I'd be interested in your comments.
Mike Barwise
Hemel Hempstead, UK - Tuesday, November 13, 2018 at 08:57:47 (PST)

Errors in gravity: Per calculator of gravity that I found on the web (which appears to be correct), at 300 miles up, gravity is about 13.6% less, not 15%. Second, your percentage calculation is incorrect. 15% less than 115 lbs is NOT 100 lbs, it is 97.75 lbs. This is adding bad math to bad science. :^) Norm
Norman Thompson
Louisville, CO USA - Sunday, November 11, 2018 at 15:31:45 (PST)
Thank you for putting into it all out there for us to dig into, you've blown my mind
Black Hills, SD USA - Saturday, October 06, 2018 at 10:05:25 (PDT)
Dr. Edson Andre' Johnson FD.D.ULC
Huntington Beach, California USA - Tuesday, September 25, 2018 at 20:29:37 (PDT)
Hello, I am from the Strange Evidence production team and was wondering if you were able to help me with this question please? Or anyone else? "A tesla coil with 2000 volts sent an electric charge to a host from 0.5 metres (or a foot). If the distance between the host and the electric power source was 1 mile (1609 metres) how high would the voltage need to be to achieve the same connection? Thank you very much in advance! Lydia
London, UK - Monday, September 10, 2018 at 03:16:44 (PDT)
Hi Bill, Read this on your site:
"NEW 2011: In the germ-warfare book "Demon in the Freezer, author Richard Preston tells a story of a smallpox incident in a hospital, where several staff members were infected. The victims worked in the floor above an isolated smallpox patient. The patient was secretly smoking cigarettes and blowing the smoke out a window. The air was carried up the side of the warm building and into open windows on the floor above. Smallpox is communicated directly by air! But is coughing required? Or can the viruses somehow make the leap into the air directly from the lung surfaces? Preston mentions that doctors say the source of smallpox is a spot at the back of the throat. (Based on what evidence, I wonder?) The deciding test: if any population still had smallpox, the victims could be tested by breathing into a particle counter (the sort used for air quality in cleanrooms.) Or, test other diseases: people suffering from poxvirus which isn't Smallpox. Remember, evaporation does not produce aerosols, and there's no clear reason that human lungs should produce large particle counts. If their lungs generate particles without any coughing, that's a mystery. If their lungs generate large particle counts only when they're infected, that's a discovery! "
To me this seems to be the result of the smoking of the cigarette... normally breathing heats the air after its drawn into the lungs, but smoking a cig would cause hot air to come in that might be at a higher temp than the lungs naturally aspire to... which would cause a radiation of the fluid surfaces internal to oneself to go into gaseous suspension perhaps... wonder if the cig smoke was cooled before being drawn in, if it would have the same type effect... everything is gradients... :) Take care man, Gene

Gene Lamoreaux
USA - Friday, September 07, 2018 at 10:47:21 (PDT)
Thank you for one of the most interesting sites on the internet, Along with Prof. Calvert's site, it is one on which I spend many happy hours, usually followed by a visit to my capacious junk box for components with which I can follow up some of your suggested experiments.
Derek Cooknell
Cheltenham, UK - Tuesday, September 04, 2018 at 02:02:20 (PDT)
I have followed your instructions for making the generator and despite only using materials from your lists, I couldn't get it to work. I was wondering if you could help me debug it?
Beverly Williams
Albuquerque, NM USA - Sunday, August 19, 2018 at 15:11:52 (PDT)
Bill, I just emailed you the 'WINDSWIMMER' airfoil design question. Thanks for your valued feedback.
Best regards, Darin

Darin Selby
Woodstock, NY USA - Saturday, August 04, 2018 at 07:59:12 (PDT)
Hi Bill! Thank you so much for your site! was one of my original inspirations to get into electronics and science. I think I first came across the site in the early 00's -- some 18 years later I'm now a professional EE, and I get paid to play around with plasma and electronics! None of this would have happened if I didn't have your site to sink my spare time into (what a read it it's always been!)
Hope you're doing well, and thank you once again!
Raymond Jimenez

Raymond Jimenez
CA USA - Friday, August 03, 2018 at 15:07:55 (PDT)
Thank you for all of this content. Its like taking the blue pill of electricity.

When the power company's power line breaks in a storm and the wire falls to the ground I know two things happen. The voltage will sag and the current(electric charge! :-)) will spike. That is to say my coulombs per second will spike. What could I expect to see with my Joules of energy??? Do they flow only from source to load? Is their path only on the source(hot)side of the circuit or is it made up of both hot and return paths? I have witnessed the power company's wires laying on the ground forming an undesirable circuit and have seen the joules of energy converting pavement to glass. It was pretty impressive. If I could understand better the relationship between Amps and Watts and lean what path the Joules of energy take for this case I would be better prepared for our next storm.
Thank you!

Michael Agnew
Phoenix, AZ USA - Friday, August 03, 2018 at 09:26:32 (PDT)

Sir i have a problem regarding holes in conductor my question is there holes exist in conductors because holes concept is just in semiconductor and also the holes makes the material non conductive and in conductor the valence and conduction band overlap with each other so the electron move within the same lattice but i read a book introduction to electronics by early gates in which chap 2 current he clearly seen that in copper wire the hole create so i am bit confuse about holes that weather or not it exist in conductors.i am waiting for your positive reply as soon as possible. Regards Qusain Zaidi
Qusain Zaidi
Lahore, Punjab Pakistan - Wednesday, July 18, 2018 at 12:11:03 (PDT)
Hi Bill, I'm looking to get in touch about filming with you on our show. Please could you give me an email on Many thanks Niki
Niki Greig
London, NA UK - Thursday, June 14, 2018 at 04:59:57 (PDT)
Wud appreciate if you could add the wire size on the right side of the table, that will make it easier to read the table easier. You don't have to move to the left side of the table to confirm the wire size.
[Great idea! Done. Tesla-coil wire gauge table -billb]
Thanks narendatta 443 301 8395

Rockville, Md USA - Thursday, June 07, 2018 at 17:28:30 (PDT)
I found your piece on traffic dynamics while searching for sources of research supported explainations for zipper merge validity. I still have found none but thought you might know of any such research attempts. I would comment that the Venturi principle comes to mind when this subject comes up as it carries the related principles that apply to the merge problem, however everyone I have discussed the zipper merge with has never heard of the Venturi principle, nor understood how it relates. The key factor relies on traffic to increase in speed at the point of restriction, or other need to be adjusted, which usually do NOT occur at traffic merges.

The zipper analogy, while being a nice tool to get buy-in from drivers, fails to provide users with critical comparative components: a zipper automatically controls speed, spacing, and lane-fill consistency. Without controlling all of these each variation brings back all of the inefficiencies that human behavior can bring to bare. Try removing a few teeth from a zipper, or substitute a few extra large teeth, or allow one side to move to the conjunction point faster and see if that operates any better than an uncontrolled merge, as that is exactly how all zipper merges I have encountered have been constructed.

I would be interested in seeing examples where real scientific principles were employed in true scientific research. Without such, I remain a strong skeptic that zipper merges can overcome human misbehavior.
James Jetter
North Liberty, IA USA - Wednesday, May 30, 2018 at 22:10:32 (PDT)

Hi Bill, I saw your list of ridiculed scientists, I think one of the most important ones you missed is Ludwig Boltzmann, one of the founders of statistical mechanics. He actually killed himself as a reaction to the animosity he encountered.
Cris Dekker
Hengelo, OV Netherlands - Wednesday, May 30, 2018 at 16:32:53 (PDT)
Hi I came across some comments you made regarding Valles Marineris some years back. I have new evidence that might support some of your ideas

get in touch? Dan
dan james
redruth, Cornwall United Kingdom - Wednesday, May 30, 2018 at 03:48:51 (PDT)

Thanks for this great website love it!
Paweł Kozłowski SEO
Washington, USA - Sunday, April 22, 2018 at 00:50:07 (PDT)
Hi I really liked your website. I hope you are keeping it up to date and are working on it in 2018 too.

My queries are about "Filled and empty balloons do not demonstrate the weight of air" since I have been reading a little about it these days.

1. Since I do not have an in-depth knowledge of Physics and maybe due to the language of this article, I could not understand most of the article.

2. Is there a typo in "Obviously the density effects do not directly demonstration anything about the weight of air..." ?

3. You mention "The experiment secretly relies on the fact that the air within a high-pressure balloon is denser than air within a low pressure balloon." Do you mean that the balloon which is inflated more is at higher pressure and has denser air? If yes, then I am confused. I saw an experiment and have done it myself where 2 balloons are joined by a pipe and one is inflated more than the other. When the mouth of balloons is opened, air flows from smaller balloon to bigger balloon. I couldnt understand its expplanation fully, but it said somewhat that the smaller balloon is actually at higher pressure and mentioned Young's Law. How is that? And is that contradictory to what you have written?
Ashutosh Bhakuni
Haldwani, Uttarakhand India - Wednesday, April 18, 2018 at 03:59:11 (PDT)

Have you heard good results from spraying the car seat with antistatic solution (to prevent getting shocked)? The concern here is whether the damp seats will get moldy.

These days, I touch a metal teaspoon to the door before opening. With keys, I can feel the (unpleasant) charge coursing through my hands even before the keys touch the door. Less so with spoons, being longer. But looks weird.
Albuquerque, NM USA - Saturday, April 14, 2018 at 16:33:43 (PDT)

On your page that discussed the source of energy for atoms,, have you considered that their internal structure could be functioning as a fractal antenna that has a form somewhat like E8 geometry?
Frank Makinson
Gold Hill, OR USA - Sunday, April 01, 2018 at 02:13:58 (PDT)
I just wanted to let you know that I was able to repair an ika c-mag hs 7 hot plate thanks to the information you posted on the web. Could not be more thrilled to get it working and couldn't have done it without your help!

I had bought the hot plate at goodwill (believe it or not) for $35 with it being described as having no power, with possibly a broken power switch. Well turns out the power switch really was broken, but after replacing it the hot plate would still not function. All it would do was attempt to power up and display an error message e. 9 on the display and hault.

Long story short, I was able to follow the troubleshooting steps and potential problems you listed on the webpage and I narrowed down the potential problems all the way down to the heating element relay safety circuit. When I read the bit about pins 3 and 5 needing to be shorted together on the rear temperature probe dip connector, I quickly bent a paperclip into position and made the bridge and sure enough no more error message and heating and stirring now work just fine!

Apparently there's a cover for the temperature probe port that my hot plate did not come with, and I had no idea it was missing because the manual mentioned nothing about it. So without your info I may have never gotten the hot plate to operate.


P.S. This was the only working method I was able to find to contact you. I don't mean to "clutter up" your guest book so once you receive this message feel free to remove it from the list. I just wanted to let you know how useful your info was to me :)
Richard Bland
Md USA - Tuesday, March 13, 2018 at 11:07:22 (PDT)

I built a pair of your infrared goggles a few years ago. Thanks to a good CCD and a judicious application of various laser wavelength, they have now been evolved into a chlorophyll detector with no moving parts.

I am in talks to have that installed on the next Mars rover, to look for life (In the sense that the project has already been approved and I will begin working on the flight article as soon as my immigration papers go through). Thank you for keeping me sane during the 90s. <3
Matteo Borri
San Rafael, California United States - Wednesday, March 07, 2018 at 04:04:53 (PST)

Well I moved into a room I was scared off to over come it. I had no friends no family. One night I was falling asleep I felt this strong energy enter the room from the roof skirting and forcefully land on my shoulder and breath. I got scared but then I just relaxed and tried to feel love. As I had no love in my life. Well he just felt like surprised gave up and went back out the other side of the rooms roof skirting. Other time I seen this black water cloud energy thing at house roof level coming at me. I ran inside. Then one morning I had an entity try to cocoon me with my quit I screened rang the police the ambulance and checked myself into a mental institution
Mooroopna, Victoria Australia - Tuesday, March 06, 2018 at 11:19:40 (PST)
You've explained so much, but I'm still not clear on what happens with batteries. Why do they die? How do they get "used up"? Do you just run out of electrons on one side and neutralize everything on the positive side?
[Still no batteries entry, but I did write a big one on -billb]

This site is amazing, by the way. The way it fundamentally changes the misconceptions of teaching has really helped jumpstart my understanding of electrostatic physics. Thanks so much.
USA - Thursday, February 15, 2018 at 16:49:45 (PST)

Hi, I'm experimenting with a.... well, let's call it a Waveguide Tesla Coil. Here's a picture.

The largest diameter ring is a split-ring. That's where you can put in your signal, or measure output. The other cylinders are just whole cylinders. Mild steel, seam welded.

Any thoughts?

Do you think it might have more than one frequency of resonance?

I was thinking about hooking up the big ring as the tank circuit in a Colpitts oscillator, to try to measure the frequency it likes to ring at.

Do you think the frequencies it likes have wavelengths equal to (or proportional to) the circumferences of the cylinders? Or the distances between them? Or....?

I'm open to any ideas, suggestions.

Thanks! :)
Sean Logan
Oakland, CA USA - Tuesday, February 13, 2018 at 20:10:23 (PST)

You have noticed in a mirror the little IR light from a TV channel hand control will immediately shrink your iris !

Ask me to what I attribute this bio reaction ?
Alex Procup
Reno, NV USA - Saturday, February 10, 2018 at 23:45:06 (PST)

"And since we're using a 9-volt battery to pull the movable holes in the p-type.". Can someone explain this statement from Part 2 of the transistor explanation? I am trying to reconcile this statement with electron flow in the circuit diagram below it. Thanks
Kevin Glaser
riverdale, New Jersey United States - Monday, January 29, 2018 at 02:42:17 (PST)
Hi Bill. I wanted to let you know about an upcoming event -- Vintage Computer Festival Pacific Northwest -- which is Feb. 10-11 at the Living Computer Museum in Seattle.

My organization is a 501(c)(3) non-profit. We've had our events in New Jersey and California for several years, and now we are excited about our first event in the PNW region.

There will be 20 hands-on exhibits of historic computers from the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s; presentations; and a consignment room. The event is family-friendly.

We'd be grateful if you can put this event on the Seattle science events calendar and help us spread the word.

Thank you!


Evan Koblentz, director

Vintage Computer Federation

a 501(c)(3) educational non-profit (646) 546-9999
Evan Koblentz
- Saturday, January 27, 2018 at 22:47:57 (PST)

Hello! great site, i've never cracked maxwell in college so I've been having a blast reading about voltage, etc in your site (hint: get a CSS hacker)

I hope you see this so here's how I think about 'electricity'

Electricity, the word, has evolved into meaning "the techonology, or set of related technolgies, used to distribute energy by manipulating charge"
Mexico - Friday, January 26, 2018 at 14:43:57 (PST)

Thank you, very inspiring!
CH - Tuesday, January 23, 2018 at 07:00:47 (PST)
I have been able to hear electric fields lately. My mom has a diffuser in her bedroom and when it's turned off but plugged in I can hear a very high pitched noise. I can also hear my DVD player and cathode ray TV emit this occasionally.
Orion Joynes
Forks, WA United States - Thursday, January 11, 2018 at 16:55:09 (PST)
Thanks for the article on charge. I will include it in the refs for the book. Helpful 'explanation' of charge.
george conger
USA - Monday, January 08, 2018 at 07:57:16 (PST)
two visits a decade apart, great site. it was the 3m force field that brought me here this time around
USA - Thursday, January 04, 2018 at 14:37:54 (PST)
Hi, the page about electricity make me think more and it is logical. So, where do energy come from? Does it come from the center of two, which it makes sense, or it come from proton as starting point that shoot out energy which it is electricity only after electrons is far separate as cancel out the balance. So, what we have is balance eletricity and unbalance electricity and exchange of electricity that is lose positive electricty or gain negative electricity, so it is about two within, so it is always two of something that represent mass and matter. So, both hold the Aether where Energy reign. So, Volage give you enegy that you can feel and see, Current is energy that is high positive energy or volage that is high negative energy which it is elecrons. So, electron and protons, same as volt and current. So, current is electrons; volt is protons, so then the energy do not come from protons source but center of two, if it is high density of two equal number but when both separate, you feel high energy that is volt or current? Volt and current depends on either balance and unbalance electricty but far apart. Ya can look at Aether if ya know about it.
Khalif Foster
USA - Thursday, December 21, 2017 at 00:41:22 (PST)
Proofreading: at Micael Faraday died in 1867, so the comment about a discovery of in the 20 century is a typo.
[Oops, should be 1839, fixed -billb]
I love your material.. clear, concise, relevant, useful. On this evidence, I think your ' I am not a teacher' comments do not do you justice. I can see your explanations and demonstrations working very well, even in primary school. Bravo, sir, Bravo.

Steve Fraser
Plano, Tx USA - Sunday, December 17, 2017 at 16:24:26 (PST)
if you confined 2 reversed polarity magnets that where set in a designated oval or spherical track, wouldn't you be able to harness the energy? even if you had to replace the magnets periodically?
Canada - Friday, December 01, 2017 at 20:13:51 (PST)
"Science hides in the space between the Believers and the Scoffers"

I love this quote of yours. I hope it lingers.

Bill Van Horne
Holmes Beach, Florida USA - Thursday, November 30, 2017 at 00:45:01 (PST)
Hi Bill, Thank you so much for your detailed explanations about repairing the Livescribe Echo digital recorder pen. I found your website as I am facing a pretty serious emergency with my own Livescribe Echo pen. I am a researcher at UC Berkeley who has recorded many interviews on the pen. I had not downloaded the files though because due to my laptop being old (macbook 2008 version), as the files were not properly downloading to it. So the interview files are all still in the pen. The pen was working great until about a week ago, when I pushed the start button to turn it on, and it just said "Starting..." on the screen for ages, and would not move beyond that to turn on all the way. I contacted Livescribe Online Customer Support and they didn't offer any help. They simply said there's no way to get the data out of the pen, and that the only thing I can do is reset it, and lose a vast amount of data. I can't believe this is the case, so I'm writing to ask you if you have tried recovering data from the Echo pen. I imagine it's something similar to recovering data from a USB stick or external hard drive. I tried to update the firmware on the pen as well through connecting it with my computer (tried switching the USB cords also), but since the pen does not turn on fully, nothing happens. I am currently in South Korea for my research and there are a lot of USB data recovery companies around here I could try to use. But first I would really appreciate your advice on whether you've been able to recover data from a Livescribe Echo, what is actually going wrong when it doesn't start up like this, and what I can do to get my precious data back. Thank you!!
Isanghan Nara
Berkeley, CA USA - Tuesday, November 28, 2017 at 19:50:12 (PST)
Pretty good stuff! Well, mostly; some of the aspects you address fall somewhat under what's called "Lie-to-children": egregious oversimplifications when full explanations are too complicated. But then again, LTCs aren't exactly well-defined constructs; a common example of an LTC is "Columbus discovered America", which has all sorts of things wrong with it. Might get away with "Columbus made the New World popular"...

Oh, one thing I was especially looking for; well, two related bits. Generally, what exactly "white light" is; also just how impossible "impossible colors" really are, and why. White is actually two things: a balance of frequencies matching the ranges _human_cone_cells_can_detect_, and a signal so strong that it overwhelms our rod cells (brightness detectors). The ranges aspect is important, because we can build lights that combine ones we'd see as pink, ones we'd see as green, but we can't combine them into what would look pinkish green _to_us_, even if our mixed light is two equally strong bulbs of the relevant colors. (And that doesn't even touch what some animals see, given different ones can see IR & UV ranges.) I've likely said something technically wrong, but I hope you get the gist of my point.

[Yeah, "white" light is something that humans see (same as colors: they're an artifact of human vision. Just consider white light as yet another false "color." Alien eyes might see our white video screens as brilliant reddish blue-green, rather than a proper broadband spectrum like sunlight on "white" paper. -billb]

Again, good stuff! For me, that's raving; tend to be a bit conservative with my praise, even when I'm enthusiastic. Always dismayed when my "generous" votes bring down ratings, but for me "10 out of 10" is something historical -- eg, Einstein's Theory of Relativity -- and everything below gets scaled way down, er, relatively. So please don't take offense when I say your site rates a solid 7, maybe close to an 8; it's about as high as I can imagine rating any website. Thanks for your good work.

KL Baldwin

Oh, and quick note: on this Guestbook form page, the word "required" after the name-box is missing the letter U. [Well spotted. It's intentional, to foil auto-spam bots which attempt to answer any "required" security question. -billb]

KL Baldwin
Titusville, PA USA - Monday, November 13, 2017 at 10:49:47 (PST)

Thanks :

The entire book, in french :

The 2 first chapters in english:

Thanks ! Lavau

Jacques Lavau
Décines-Charpieu, France - Friday, November 10, 2017 at 21:51:03 (PST)
Hi Bill, I recently interviewed for a job in Seattle and I really hope I get it so that I can begin regularly attending the Wierd Science Salon. It seems like this is the kind of meetup I've been looking for.

Best regards,
Thom Hastings

Thom Hastings
St. Louis, MO USA - Saturday, October 28, 2017 at 14:11:38 (PDT)
Hello William, Please enjoy the man behind the inventions, The Tesla Secret:

To understand Tesla's later work one need to know The work of Walter Russell too: Warm regards: Steve

István Kocsis / Steve
Érd, Hungary - Saturday, October 14, 2017 at 09:15:53 (PDT)
Hi Bill I saw your info on the repair of the Eppendorf 5415D. By replacing the 2.2uf cap.
Do you have any advice on a 5417C (The old version) with an error 6. Is often a bad freq converter. This unit a seprate freq conv and a main board. I swapped the freq conv module and the motor. Same problem. My guess it somthing on the main board. Any suggestions.


Dave Kain 402-681-8276

Dave Kain
Omaha, ne USA - Friday, September 29, 2017 at 03:54:47 (PDT)
Dear Bill, i read your suggestion on Tesla neurologic illness. I am an italian doctor, and with friend we study the vascular and neurologic diseases of Tesla. In a blog you report:

"Tesla famously had a sealed wooden box on a tripod. It was supposed to produce some sort of magical electric healing effect when placed against the head, and Tesla described treating himself with this for 30min per day over many decades. He said it stimulated extreme creativity, and also restored him from fatigue; removing exhaustion and the need for sleep. What was in the brain-box? Speculating here: almost certainly it was a fairly powerful x-ray tube. X-rays, plus some fast electrons (today called Beta radiation)".

In essential for my pathogenetic hypothesis on Tesla clinical picture, to study better this box. Do you have a reference for this? Also only information about this box?

Thank you for your collaboration and keep in touch


Ludovico Abenavoli
Catanzaro, Italy - Friday, September 29, 2017 at 00:43:00 (PDT)
Hello Bill! I just wanted to say THANK YOU for your great text "WHAT IS VOLTAGE?". Finally, it all fell together and made sense to me. The Site is bookmarked and I will come back to read some more. I wish more teachers would teach like you do. Thumbs up! Oliver
Cologne, Germany - Thursday, September 28, 2017 at 02:48:06 (PDT)
Hi. Im sorry to use this form but Im hoping you may have some answers for me. I run a home business as a massage therapist/healer. I have noticed that for some of ny clients my fingers zap them. They report it feeling like needles puncturing their skin and eventually it really hurts them and they pull away. Others explain it as a zap that keeps getting stronger. Have you got any theories why this is happening? Is it a bad thing? Thanks.
QLD AUSTRALIA - Monday, September 25, 2017 at 14:05:10 (PDT)
Eppendorf 5415 centrifuge power board...Wires into screwless PCB do I release the wires from the 45 degree terminals?? Thanks
Mike Hope
St. louis, MO USA - Sunday, September 24, 2017 at 10:39:34 (PDT)
I like your repair guide for the IKA RCT Basic ( Followed all the instructions, but still cant make it work. Replaced the CPU, also without any success. I suspect, that I need to program the PSoC, can you or anybody tell me how this can be done? or maybe even provide a copy of the code for the RCT basic?.

Thank you so much for helping. Markus

Markus Vosen
Kainbach bei Graz, Styria Austria - Saturday, September 16, 2017 at 02:45:32 (PDT)
Thank you for creating this awesome site and sharing your knowledge.I and my friends have been practicing breaking up traffic waves and so far the results have been more than satisfactory!Thank you again!
Chester, Virginia US - Wednesday, September 13, 2017 at 14:13:43 (PDT)
Hi William. I'm a software developer, and I've just started to learn about electricity. Sites like Khan Academy,, offer a free course on the subject, but one of the hardest things I've found is trying to create a mental model of how charge flows through a circuit.

After reading your enlightening article called '"ELECTRICITY" MISCONCEPTIONS IN K-6 TEXTBOOKS',, it only highlights the confusion around electricity. I find it difficult to divorce the notion of electrons and energy, in the sense that while electrons (negative charge) are moving through the circuit, it is the propagation of a electromagnetic wave that transfers the energy.

My question is, in your opinion what are the best resources you've come across to gain a deep understanding of the different faucets of electricity, and electrical engineering in general?

Thank you in advance, Cameron.

Cameron Bourke
Sydney, NSW Australia - Sunday, September 10, 2017 at 02:24:48 (PDT)
im a 38 yo roofer and paver,started with a friends electrical firm last year and have been learning as much as i can. i found your page this weekend and ive rinsed all the info from it,and will keep coming back until its all stored away.schools in the uk are not taught much about electrical systems.they taught us how to wire a plug.but thats about it! i understand a lot more today than i did two days ago and ill keep coming back. sincerely thank you friend. all the best
tommy pea
norwich, uk - Sunday, September 03, 2017 at 11:16:59 (PDT)
Inspired by you, What do you think?
Las Vegas, Nevada USA - Saturday, August 12, 2017 at 18:35:28 (PDT)
I recently read your electrical misconception article and I liked what it taught me. Do you have or would you be so kind as to make an article about the Tesla coil and wireless transmission and reception of energy?
Koray Kumru
San Antonio, TX USA - Thursday, May 18, 2017 at 06:44:53 (PDT)
On your page about "Ridiculed Discoverers, Vindicated Mavericks", I don't think your description of Chandrasekhar's discovery is correct. His discovery was about the maximum mass for white dwarfs. The existence of the limit implied the existence of black holes (neutron stars were not then known, but their discovery later in the 1930s did not fundamentally change this implication, since they also have a maximum mass limit), but Chandrasekhar was not the only person who believed that implication, and he did not follow it up by working out any of the actual equations governing black holes. Also, all of the physicists whom Chandrasekhar consulted agreed with his results; even astronomers came around within a few years. They were only reluctant about making public statements to that effect while Eddington was alive, because of his prestige and his unwillingness to accept the possibility of black holes.

As far as this obstruction on Eddington's part holding back work on black holes for decades, I don't think that's correct either (Chandrasekhar's biographer might well want to paint things that way, but that doesn't make him right). In 1939, Oppenheimer and Volkoff did a similar analysis to Chandrasekhar's for neutron stars and found a maximum mass limit for them as well--and Oppenheimer's response was to immediately enlist another graduate student of his, Snyder, to use General Relativity to compute the details of the implosion that must occur when a neutron star reaches its maximum mass limit. They published their paper in 1939, so at most 4 years were "lost" if you insist that that kind of analysis should have been done in 1935, the year when Eddington made his surprising denial of the implications of Chandrasekhar's results immediately following Chandrasehkar's own presentation of them. But, as noted above, Chandrasekhar did not do any of this follow-up analysis, so I don't think he "discovered black hole theory" in any meaningful sense. (Kip Thorne's Black Holes and Time Warps contains a detailed discussion of all this, btw, with plenty of references.)
Peter Donis
USA - Tuesday, May 02, 2017 at 19:18:04 (PDT)

I am come here to represent how thankful I am to Mr.WILLIAM J. BEATY. I was stucked at understand working of BJT. and happens to across your answer of [ ] your explanation was great(if depletion area is really a vacuum state) and it enlightened me. thank you.
Sukwon choi
Seoul, N.A. S.korea - Wednesday, April 19, 2017 at 19:58:07 (PDT)
A couple more examples for the list of ridiculed discoverers: Reginald Claude Sprigg, who discovered the Ediacaran Biota, leading to the first new geological period to be recognized in 120 years. His work was repeatedly rejected and disbelieved; it seems it took about a decade for anyone to take interest. Martin Moynihan and Arcadio Rodaniche - Most of their controversial claims had to do with squid communication, and remain controversial; but they also claimed the existence of "Larger Pacific Striped Octopus" which exhibited social behaviour and was much longer lived than usual for an octopus. The claim drew skepticism since its 1982 publication, but was vindicated in 2013.
Daniel Demski
Mount Pleasant, MI USA - Tuesday, April 18, 2017 at 13:02:46 (PDT)
Okay, to all appearances it ate both my attempts at giving the new URL. Let's try this again. www dot sunlit dot space slash ravendays
Meredith Minter Dixon
Mannington, WV USA - Sunday, April 02, 2017 at 11:30:47 (PDT)
Raven Days' URL has changed. It's one of your Nerd-Misfit links. The new URL is No need to post this in the Guestbook; I just wanted to call your attention to the change.
Meredith Minter Dixon
Mannington, WV USA - Sunday, April 02, 2017 at 11:29:16 (PDT)
Hi, need update on link and other link, this link is 'Farnsworth Fusor (Multipactor) Tube'
Yonkers, NY United States - Wednesday, March 29, 2017 at 00:09:04 (PDT)
I'm thinking of building some near-infrared-viewing booths for Burning Man, as described in your $10 infrared goggles article. Has anyone actually constructed booths like these, to your knowledge?
NJ USA - Monday, March 13, 2017 at 17:50:39 (PDT)
Hi! Saw your post on repairing the Livescribe Echo. How much would you charge to repair a dead oled display? I bought my echo relatively new but discovered the display was dead. The battery is ok, I can hear sounds clearly. The display just needs replacing. I just don't trust myself with a soldering iron. Let me know if you can help! :)
[Unfotunately the displays are not avaliable from LIvescribe. I repaired my own pen because I bought a $30 pen from eBay, then swapped its working display -billb]

- Monday, March 13, 2017 at 03:50:10 (PDT)
I am reading Dr. Mary's Monkey, by Ed Haslam. One of the author's claims is that an engineer named James Nygard had a company that used a linear particle accelerator to manufacture bowling alley flooring. Yeah, seriously;-} But it gets better. Apparently, he was 'vaporized' by the beam. A Giggle search brings up several comments. Nobody seems to take the claim too seriously. Is there any reality to this, or is it like the Philadelphia Experiment as told by Al Bielek?
Matt Mattock
SEQUIM, WA United States - Wednesday, February 22, 2017 at 17:15:59 (PST)
Thank you SO MUCH for the post regarding the repair of the Eppendorf 5415D centrifuges. It worked well for us!
Ben Ardahl
Mississippi State, MS USA - Tuesday, November 15, 2016 at 16:14:59 (PST)
Excellent! Accidental discovery from ooohtube surfing looking for high voltage madness. Day job: electrician, night job: mad scientist. Love this site. Thanks Bill. Good to know there are still some other perfectly normal completely crazy nice people out there. Regards from South West England. PS: The scary roving eyes mug shot worked! WTF?! Ha! Good work Cuz.
Dave D
Devon, UK - Monday, November 07, 2016 at 17:04:39 (PST)
It was great to see validation for the research I have been doing involved with traffic dynamics. I am looking for a group interested in forming to explore such topics as in the recent WSJ article, and help with organizing. (A note for the moderator: any help with communication would be appreciated. I stay away from social media like the plague. Please gather those interested in this idea in a folder, and wheh it gets big can Mr. Beaty contact me?--Thanks!)
Jeffrey Bedolla
USA - Saturday, October 15, 2016 at 15:11:52 (PDT)
Well,,,,, I'm just rocked visiting this...... It's just awesome!
emon vai
rangpur, Bangladesh Bangladesh - Saturday, October 15, 2016 at 11:34:03 (PDT)
The Massey Air Museum (MD1) recently received a gift containing the personal files of the editor of Aviation magazine from 1941 to 1947 which contained some education materials from United Air Lines, School & College Dept. printed in 1943. In particular, a 6 page pamphlet titled ?To help you find and name the important parts of a Mainliner? contained the following on p. 4:

Unit IV - Parts of or near the Wings

The upper and lower surfaces support the plane in flight

UNDER WING SURFACE The Under Wing Surface HOLDS UP ABOUT ONE-THIRD OF THE PLANE IN FLIGHT. When air pushes against the under side of the wings it helps to lift the plane up.

UPPER WING SURFACE The Upper Wing Surface LIFTS ABOUT TWO-THIRDS OF THE PLANES WEIGHT. This surface is curved back from the Front, or Leading Edge of each wing. When the plane flies, air ruches very fast over this upper surface and hardly touches the curved top side. This takes away part of the air pressure from the top of the wings and creates a partial vacuum. This is why the top surface of the wings lifts so much.

I was shocked to read the CAPITALIZED (by me) portion and realized I couldn?t distribute this, especially to school students touring our museum as I had planned. Since Massey has a 1937 DC-3, I felt that this pamphlet (both with a rare right side passenger door) was a perfect companion hand-out to describe our DC-3 to those taking the tour.

Can you suggest alternate language, geared for a fifth grader, that I can substitute for these two paragraphs? In my opinion, the language of the rest of the pamphlet is already fifth grade appropriate, despite it being generated by ?School & College Dept.? of United Air Lines.

I was particularly struck by the use of fractions to ascribe the relative amount of lift generated by the top and bottom of the wing. I had never read percentages assigned this way (I?m neither an engineer nor a pilot), but if you are comfortable assigning relative percentages to top & bottom lift on a DC-3 wing, I would like to include those numbers by way of comparison to the original material.

(Massey Aerodrome & Air Museum)

Bill Dougherty
Norristown, PA USA - Wednesday, September 28, 2016 at 11:22:46 (PDT)
A Google image search "poynting theorem and puzzles of electromagnetic momentum" got me to your page,

Consider a charged parallel plate capacitor separated by a small distance d. With one plate fixed increase the separation of the plates slowly to a distance 2d. You have done work and increased the field energy in the capacitor.

Where is the energy flow in this case? Does the Poynting's theorem come to the rescue again? Thanks!

andy everett
doylestown, pa USA - Monday, August 22, 2016 at 18:32:29 (PDT)
I happen to capture I think some electronic magnetic pulse is coming off the electricity lines in a photo I took the other day .I don't know .. I know I can't find any pictures of it online just diagrams and 3D schematics no actual pictures if somebody could help me with what's this heard anything about it I appreciate it thank you a link to the following pictures is listed below,any information about this would be helpful please, and thank you..the pics are on my gplus account. Here's the link.
Jeremy Fredrick
Lincoln, Ne United States - Wednesday, August 17, 2016 at 18:54:23 (PDT)
I took a pic of the in the pic you can see I'm not sure electricy going through the powerline. Or some kind of engry coming out of the powerline..can anyone help explain or tell me what this is please..the pics are on my's a link to the photos. ?photo_id=10208588979095212&mds=%2Fphotos%2Fviewer%2F%3Fphotoset_token %3Dpcb.10208588980095237%26photo%3D10208588979095212%26profileid%3D 1031282179%26source%3D48%26refid%3D52%26cached_data%3D false%26ftid%3Du_7_0&mdf=1
Jeremy Fredrick
Lincoln, Ne United States - Saturday, August 06, 2016 at 04:15:37 (PDT)
Thank you very much ! I am a student and you've helped me properly understand some basics that have been doing my head in since I started (a few years ago now). Thank you for this;

I am very grateful, excited and relieved too, thanks !! - I look forward to exploring some more truths and who knows what else on your site :D

Australia - Friday, July 15, 2016 at 23:19:15 (PDT)
Hello, I`ve had some problems trying to fin a way to fix my Echo SmartPen and finally I reached your webpage explaining how to fix the display, I was wondering if you mind that I translate that page into Spanish because there is not many info available related to the LiveScribe issue. Thanks in advance for your attention. Kind regards.
Rafael Cabrera
Mexico, Mexico - Tuesday, July 12, 2016 at 10:01:26 (PDT)
Static electricity? I reached for a pillow during the night a glowing white light appeared under my hand and continued as I ran my hand over the pillow. Glows about an inch or two all around my hand. No shock or spark. Has happened 4 times now once at my sisters home. My husband saw it also. we're assuming static but no shock or other reaction.
Warren, PA USA - Tuesday, June 14, 2016 at 15:35:18 (PDT) THIS IS INTERISTING ?

CATALONIA - Sunday, May 15, 2016 at 15:33:17 (PDT)
Oops, one more article for your review: "Taking Electrons out of Electronics" published by the same authors of the article in the previous comment, "A Polysaccharide Bioprotonic Field-Effect Transistor" but this is a more recent article, also quite interesting as they finally indulge in the possibilities of applying this biotechnology.

I wish you well!

Silver Spring, MD USA - Monday, May 02, 2016 at 08:35:05 (PDT)
Bill, thank you for publishing this wealth of knowledge where everyone can learn! When I happened upon your site, it struck me that you might perhaps find this scientific article interesting, they produced a field-effect transistor that uses protons instead of electrons! Imagine the possibilities of creating "electronics" that can attach directly to our body's nerves, enabling new sensory dimensions and controls! I have not seen any applications published yet, so I guess they are still in the research and patent phase (after all, this is America). Here is the link, I wish you well!

If the link doesn't work you can find the article by searching for "bioprotonic field-effect transistor" and find it. If this is old new, then I apologize for wasting your time.

I wish you well!

Silver Spring, MD USA - Monday, May 02, 2016 at 07:55:40 (PDT)
Just a huge thank you for the Laser essay. I've been looking into lasers for 40 years and never found the answer to my one question, which appears to have been your question too.

Bill DeWitt
Lexington, KY USA - Wednesday, April 27, 2016 at 12:21:10 (PDT)
Just started on this and doing research. What is the difference in setting up the magnets and coils in these two different ways [(youtube) your, Simple generator: AC generator... and - How to build a Hydro Generator]? One has magnets within the copper coil while the other has magnets on the side of the coil. Does one create more power/energy than the other with less/more coils and magnets vs the other, and if so how or why? Thanks in advance. Anyone who might be able to help with some information, I appreciate it.

[Hi Hector. Mine is extremely simple, so kids in 2nd or 3rd grade can make it without help from their parents.

In the "hydro generator" video, theirs doesn't have enough turns of fine wire. That means, theirs cannot light a red LED, or even light the special 1-volt light-bulb listed on my project page. So, theirs needs a voltmeter. My version needs no voltmeter.

Theirs would work better if they had one steel plate and one cardboard disk. Maybe attach their coils to the back of an old iron fry pan bought from Salvation Army or a garage sale. The goal is to have the coils be thin like pancakes, with iron on at least one side, so the magnets can get really close to the iron plate as they travel over the coils. The steel plate will greatly concentrate the field from the magnets.

But even without improvements, theirs is the first step to making a real adult-level kilowatt alternator to power an actual home. All professional generators need many pounds of iron or steel in order to work right. Their pancake-style generator is designed to fit between wide steel disks. With steel, you can get thousands of times higher output than with cardboard. Just one piece of flat steel would make a big difference.

And, if they made their coils out of #30 gauge wire, rather than #24, then they could wrap lots more turns in the same space.Below is one of those high-wattage generator projects, using large neo supermagnets, and heavy coils embedded in solid epoxy glue -billb]

SIX THOUSAND WATTS!!! freakin' huge DIY generator

Hector Araiza
Las Vegas, Nv USA - Tuesday, April 26, 2016 at 11:09:03 (PDT)
I think you're the real person to get nice information of how electricity works.I tried looking these pdfs:[First principles of electrical engineering]( /details/ firstprincipleso00bigguoft) and [General lectures on Electrical Engineering]( /details/ generallectureso00steirich) and even the video on [Principles of Electricity](https:// com/watch? v=IpaEGhjpZgc) which says that due to the electrons resistance the lamp is light and I was satisfied a little.All of my hope went away while reading this [lecture](http://www. physics10/files/ ch23_electric_current.pdf) which tells that energy really flows from the outlets not the electrons.After that I was really confused whether it's electrons or energy that lights the lamp.Could you help me.
USA - Monday, April 18, 2016 at 03:24:39 (PDT)
Wow - a lot of interesting (and surprising) contributions - in particular your series about "misconceptions". However, I like to ask something about bipolar transistors (BJT).

1.) Do you have any explanation why the majority of textbooks (and I think it is the majority!) and other introductory contributions still describe the transistor as current-controlled? I really cannot understand because it is simply unlogical!. Everybody accepts 0.7 volts as necessary to open the BJT - but then they believe that variations around the bias point are caused by base current variations. But there are so many BJT properties as well as applications which can be explained with voltage-control only. How can somebody think that 3 charged carriers from the base region can "release" 333 other carriers from the emitter (assuming a beta of 300). To me, this is really a phenomenon. In several discussions, I have made already reference to your BJT description (how do transistors really work?)

2.) Another question: How is the Early voltage defined? I mean, how can it be found using the graphical method based on the Ic=f(VCE) curves? In particular: With IB=const or VBE=constant? I have checked several text books and Internet contributions (from universities!). Result: Both definitions can be found. However, only one can be correct, because the slope of the different curves is different (IB=const. vs. VBE=const) leading to different VEA values. Surprisingly, in the books no author says WHY the corresponding set of curves was selected for defining VEA.

3.)As another candidat for the list of misconceptions: In a resistive voltage divider, does the current I really "produce" a voltage drop? Or is it the electric field within the resistive body (caused by the driving voltage) that ALLOWS a current I ?
Lutz v. Wangenheim
Bremen, Germany - Tuesday, April 05, 2016 at 03:47:14 (PDT)

I had no idea how utterly wrong I was about almost everything to do with anything electrical. You nailed each of my misconceptions, one after the other; for once in my life, I just couldn't stop reading.

Finally!!! Electrical concepts make sense. Thanks so much for your fantastic explanations :)
Jackson Parker
ANT - Thursday, March 31, 2016 at 21:57:16 (PDT)

You are my favourite website to use for programs at the library. I have now passed this link on to three colleagues that are working towards expanding our "Maker Space". Thank You for all of your updates you this public librarians dream resource for teaching kids about peer resources and critical thinking!!! Mary-Lou Gelissen MLIS
Mary-Lou Gelissen
Windsor, ON Canada - Tuesday, March 29, 2016 at 12:57:14 (PDT)
Thanks a lot for creating and managing such a great archive of information and links for so long.
USA - Tuesday, March 22, 2016 at 06:38:28 (PDT)
Finally someone who actually teaches electricity properly. I am mainly interested in SMPS units for computers, but every explanation I find on them is poor. Not being satisfied, I picked up a texhbook on electricity, which had almost every single error you pointed out, so I shut that. I'm having a hard time trying to find a good resource to learn more about SMPS. But the one thing I love about you @Beaty is that you describe everything in terms of charge. Nobody else does this, and it is the very reason explanations suck when it comes to any electronics. Every time I read about some electronic, I leave unhappy because I have one question, for example: Okay, so these diodes do rectification, but what is going on with the charge in them? What about the charge in an induction coil, what is happening there? You are blessed for describing stuff in terms of charge.
Jeff Vunoia
Chicago, IL USA - Monday, March 07, 2016 at 19:22:18 (PST)
brilliant simple to understand its the only reading that I have found that makes sense its as if its a secret that nobody wants you to find thank you
manchester, england - Wednesday, February 24, 2016 at 17:43:17 (PST)
Just read your article about the energy-sucking radio antenna. The reason AM stations do not use short cryocoils for antennas is lack of bandwidth. Even a lo-fi broadcast needs 10 KHz bandwidth. The hi-Q cryocoil has almost zero bandwidth. Maybe in future we can switch to digital broadcasting and make the coil jump frequency at the bit rate.
Chip Veres
Miami, FL USA - Friday, January 29, 2016 at 15:34:54 (PST)
Just wanna say thanks for the detailed transistor explanations. Gonna read them when im back from work.
It's confusing starting out in electronics, electrons flow to fill holes?, but the holes go this way, except in a semiconductor,etc,etc

Gabriel Eberhard
USA - Tuesday, January 26, 2016 at 20:40:53 (PST)
I have come across an unusual phenomenon. I am building a wireless power system and it functions as I expected. However, I was observing (via skype setup) my receiver 120 feet away inside another lab. I disconnected my earth ground and my receiver signal stayed the same strength.

I am using an unusual, experimental transmitter and receiver built with ferrite transformers. I have worked with this system for two days and I am at a loss to explain this. I continue to receive 220 KHz deflecting on the Oscope from 1 - 10 VAC on the primary and 18 V on the secondary with my ground disconnected. I am sending pulsed power via a HP214B into the transmitter at 30 VAC.

I cannot explain how I am receiving so much power so far away with no connected ground, only a coil style antenna.

I think I may be dealing with a long-range electrostatic effect. Have you ever heard of such? The web has no references to this. This site comes as close to an answer as I have seen.

Have you heard of long range electrostatic coupling? I know transverse radio waves are not the reason, I have made every effort to move my transmitter coils and orientation. I have about 125 VAC at the end of my electrostatic amplifier gained from the 214B.

Martin Poole
Hampton Roads, va USA - Monday, January 25, 2016 at 14:24:02 (PST)

Hi, I was preparing a class of basic electronics and I had the impression that not exactly understand the operation of the transistor, dominated equations but did not understand the physical operation of the transistor. My search in the books was fruitless in order to understand what produced the proportionality between the base current and the collector and how a small current could cause a large current. Most of my questions were resolved with your article but there is one more that I can not solve. How do we control the base-emitter voltage? Ultimately, in the base bias circuits which change is the base resistance, which at his time changes the current, not the voltage, right? How to modify the resistance modifies the base-emitter voltage? I had the idea that this voltage remained fixed at 0.7V, and that from this value generated "complete" conduction. The way you explain it leaves much clearer actual operation of the transistor and the proportionality between currents, but still do not understand how we control the voltage generating both currents.

I giving you a sincere thanks for the contributions that you have made, I say goodbye with the joy of having found your page and the calm that I feel knowing that others agree that we should have a greater commitment to the truth that tradition.
Jos?Luis G. Torres
La Paz, Baja California Sur M?ico - Monday, January 18, 2016 at 07:44:34 (PST)

WHENEVER YOU HAVE THE CHANCE: I would appreciate it if the owner of this site added a link to, as it contains some excellent simple free energy concepts. I have never conned anyone out of money.
Nathan Coppedge
New Haven, CT USA - Wednesday, December 16, 2015 at 11:15:01 (PST)
Can an electron pump consisting of either a Van DeGraff generator or a Tesla disk, pump more power than the pump motor consumes, so with conversion by an electrostatic motor running a standard generator, free household power can be produced on the order of 240VAC 200A service and pay for itself by saving utility company power costs within 5 years?
Kirk Fraser
Clatskanie, OR USA - Wednesday, December 09, 2015 at 18:48:55 (PST)
Hello Bill, I'll keep my message short as I read you are swamped.(Your misconceptions are an awesome read and attract beginners like me).

Its a simple question (I think) but one I can't find an answer on the net for 2 weeks.

When you increase the voltage the current will also increase.
Ampere is coulomb per second and I my understanding is that it can be caused by

- having more electrons pass a point. So the _ammount of electrons that are mobilesed_ in the electron sea is higher
- or the _same ammount_ can be made faster

Beginners question right?

I know that the Ampere is actually a reflection of the velocity drift.

Electrons that are not under a potential move randomly and there is no direction.

A potential gives the whole of electrons a direction. Some can still bounce to the other direction. Its the net direction that counts.

Maybe I don't have to understand whether electrons speed up or if more of them are mobilized (or both, argh..). But this is bugging me

I'm trying to imagine what the little dots of charge do when they flow trough a circuit.

If you can point me to a source on the internet that you find reliable that would already be a great help.

Thanks for the enlightenment so far!

Tom Pester
Amtwerpen, USA - Sunday, December 06, 2015 at 04:13:28 (PST)

Hi, I started reading your rant on Electricity.
I went to school in ireland, many years ago. I certainly don't remember any mistakes, deliberate or otherwise, in our textbooks. Maybe they just didn't cover the subject much, its possible.

I did experience a few surprises all the same. For example when I realized that the current really flowed from negative to positive. Also in university when Maxwell's equations showed that for AC the current is in the skin of the wire and that the power actually slows through the insulator, that was weird.

My son is going through the french education system, I'll have to keep an eye on how they explain electricity.

Ciaran Deignan
France - Friday, November 13, 2015 at 02:07:16 (PST)

While the text appears to be from almost 20 years ago, the very recent comments prove how useful it still is. I'm glad I found it using a Google search about capacitors and certainly found it to be eye-opening. Thank you very much!
Oren Eliezer
Plano, TX USA - Wednesday, November 11, 2015 at 18:39:51 (PST)
I stumbled upon your site while searching for info on electricity that over the years I just could not seem to grasp and knew was off. Your explanations of those things and more have made the subject much more clear for me and definitely ironed out many misconceptions that I have had. Thank you very much.
USA - Tuesday, November 10, 2015 at 14:20:49 (PST)
Hi mate, I used to pour over this site 10+ years ago I'm glad to see it's still up and your still adding new content (along with a youtube channel!) Keep doing what your doing and I'll raise a drink on your behalf to another 10 years.
Chris Pyper
Warwickshire, UK - Wednesday, October 21, 2015 at 10:18:55 (PDT)
Just another heartfelt thanks from a new fan. Superb explanation of transistors, and I love your choice of simple language in your writing. Thanks so much!
Jeffrey K. McFadden
Richmond, MISSOURI USA - Saturday, September 19, 2015 at 06:50:57 (PDT)
Your explanation of VDG is great. Most web info on this including Wikipedia is nowhere as clear as yours. Deserves wider dissemination! Congrats
siva chander
hyderabad, INDIA - Monday, August 31, 2015 at 04:06:30 (PDT)
Hi. I just came across your page about scientific breakthroughs whose discovers were ridiculed for their discoveries. Toward the bottom of the list there is an entry describing that in the 1950s child abuse was attributed to mysterious spontaneous bruising in children, but there are no references to that information. I'm researching child abuse and was wondering if you could you tell me where I could find more information about that entry? Thanks so much.
[ I'll have to look. But I recall seeing many mentions that, before the 1962 publication of Kempe's "Battered Child Syndrome," doctors considered widespread endemic child abuse to be impossible, ridiculous. Yet the same doctors were directly looking at constant massive evidence of enormous numbers of child-abuse cases. And of course, all the reports from the abused children themselves weren't believed. Doctors rejected the idea that parents were the cause. It had to be mysterious spontaneous broken bones and bruising. Quick searching finds this one: Huffpost battered child syndrome. Also try keywords: "before 1962" kempe "child abuse" also "before 1962" "battered child syndrome" -billb]

Bath, ME USA - Wednesday, August 12, 2015 at 16:54:34 (PDT)
Well Bill, here is my testimonial to your grand tutorial sites.

I have installed, commissioned, repaired and decommissioned complex electronic radio, television and telecommunications equipment for most of my working life. I have repaired all manner of electronic equipment, restored vintage radio gear, generators, motors, audio, medical, scientific equipment and every other damn thing that manipulates those little billiard ball things we call electrons.

However, until I came across your tutorials, I had no idea about the nature of "electricity". My whole concept of the beast that has kept me in good employment for the last forty years has just been turned upside down and back to front.

After all these years of study, theoretical and practical examinations,I can now honestly say that I understand 'electricity'.

Thank you Bill, cheers and good wishes,

George Georgiou
Linton, Victoria Australia - Monday, July 27, 2015 at 05:20:36 (PDT)

Great article on transistors - how they REALLY work, and depletion layers controlling things etc. Been struggling with text book articles for years and they all contradict! [ Yeah, all those textbook authors are trying to explain it to college students. They don't realize that they can't succeed unless they first explain it to little kids. Or as Einstein said, "If you can't explain it to your grandmother, it means that you don't understand it yourself." -billb] Your artcles make more sense and easier to understand. Regards,\David M.Jardine G0FDV UK radio amateur
David Michael Jardine
Broad Oak, Sussex TN21 8TW UK - Monday, July 20, 2015 at 07:24:12 (PDT)
Hi Bill, nice to bump into your site this evening. I was looking for an audio, book or video that delivers a comprehensive overview of electricity, from earliest times to current day. The who, when, what they learned, etc. Suggestions appreciated.
Tony Maden
Overland Park, KS USA - Saturday, June 20, 2015 at 20:16:09 (PDT)
pls with the high cost of fuel, can gas be use to power the generator to provide electricity for household equipments. a very big market awaits this innovation especially in my country Nigeria.
mustapha kazeem
Lagos, Nigeria - Saturday, May 02, 2015 at 11:16:09 (PDT)
Just curious what the maximum frequency for a tesla coil is. Or is there a limit?
No real limit. People often build small 27MHz Vacuum-Tube Tesla Coils and use them as "Plasma Tweeter" loudspeakers. But Marconi, he did a game on all of us when he took the powerful radio transmitter invented by Tesla and renamed it "Spark transmitter." Yet when anyone else was using the exact same device, they called it by the name "Tesla's Oscillator," or "Tesla Coil."
      So in other words, we should be asking, how high is the frequency limit on high-wattage radio transmitters? After all, if we disconnect the antenna from a kilowatt radio transmitter, we get plasma outbreaks (high-volt sparking.) If you want to create really long sparks, then you just add an Antenna Tuner to any transmitter, and broadcast kilowatt megahertz AM with 120Hz modulation. Marconi wants you to believe that this is a "Tesla Coil" and not a radio transmitter. Fit only for a special effect in old monster movies?! Nope, and Marconi's own "whip crack" transmitters only could broadcast over twenty miles or so. Stealing Tesla's invention let him broadcast across the world. Don't get me started! :) Note also that a microwave oven is a kilowatt CW-driven high-volt resonator (same thing as Tesla Coil) but operating at two thousand Megahertz 2,500MHz. Most of the cool stuff that microwave ovens do can also be done on top of the metal terminal of any kilowatt TC. Or, if you trigger a spark inside a microwave, it goes "BRANNNNNNNNNN!" much the same as a CW VTTC Vacuum-Tube Tesla Coil with no supply filter. -billb
USA - Saturday, April 18, 2015 at 07:51:35 (PDT)
Thanks so much for the wonderful explanations on electrical charge!
M. Avila
Austin, TX USA - Thursday, April 09, 2015 at 07:25:43 (PDT)
Hello, I am very gratefull; thank you for sharing valuable thoughts and experiences. It helped me understand things I would have been ashamed to ask in a classroom situation. Also it has occupied my mind at times otherwise idle. I too have found that elementary physics is taught in a way that leaves little place for creation. Perhaps the reason it is so is that teachers are afraid of exposing their ignorance. Because who can say for sure he has seen a coil "store" energy in an invisible "magnetic" "field"? The words are in quotes as they are booby trapped with a cascade of possible queries from the learner. Classes are full and teachers have little time here too. There is something unnerving about learning how quantum physics or relativity works without having a feel for scientific/engineering phenomena on a gut level. Many I think will find themselves in my situation. To them your website is gold. Best wishes, from across the great Atlantic.
Nathan J
France - Monday, April 06, 2015 at 15:28:34 (PDT)
I was reading the "BEN FRANKLIN SHOULD HAVE SAID ELECTRONS ARE POSITIVE? Wrong." article and came across the third title: "Electrons are a kind of energy particle. Wrong."... i`ve been studying basic electromagnetism from the "Feynman Lectures Vol 2" textbook, and there this author practically contradicts your sayings. For instance he calculates "the energy to assemble a sphere of charge". I mean, if you manage to get an "amount of charge" (of one sign), as you say, you forcefully had to make some work to achieve such a thing! then you stored energy into this amount...there's another paragraph where Feynman talks about how the notion of electrical energy is incompatible with the idea of a point charge, because if the sphere potential is used to calculate it, then it tends to infinity (being it proportional to the inverse of the radius, or by the fact that if one calculates the job to assemble differential parts of a charge it ends up being an infinite calculation!)
Feynman was talking about the creation of matter particles. How much energy to create a proton, or a hydrogen atom? Well, better ask about the energy to create simpler types of matter, such as electrons. The energy in matter can be released, just collide it with antimatter. (Electrons are matter, positrons are antimatter; neither is energy.) Also, Feynman's same concepts apply to any other matter particles; protons, neutrons, rubber, concrete, air. But in my articles, the critical concept is that, in wires, electrons flow slowly, while the electrical energy flows fast. The energy doesn't travel with electrons because it isn't made out of electrons, the energy just follows the columns of electrons already inside the wires. The same idea applies to any matter-based energy transmission system: rubber drive belts, rotating drive shafts, hydraulics, sound waves, etc. The mechanical energy follows the rubber drive belt. Yet the rubber molecules in a drive belt are matter particles, not energy, and the rubber molecules travel slowly in a circle while the mechanical energy propagates almost instantly from drive-wheel to driven wheel. The mechanical energy is wave-energy, and the drive belt is the medium in which those waves travel. With sound, the energy (the waves) moves fast while the air (the matter) just sits and vibrates. A wave and its medium. And finally, with electrical wires, the electrons can flow fast or slow, forwards or back, or just sit and vibrate, yet at the same time the EM energy moves rapidly in just one direction. In other words, the EM energy is the waves, the electrons are the medium, and the propagating waves are not the vibrating medium. That's just another way of saying that matter and energy are two different things. In circuits, the matter is charged particles of the metal (electrons protons or ions) and the EM electrical energy is fields, is photons. Yes, electric companies sell us 60Hz photons, not electricity, not electrons.
Tom? Giudice
buenos aires, bsas ARG - Thursday, February 26, 2015 at 21:21:13 (PST)
Aaaallelectronic sc don't work
Prettyparadoxical Woman
marathon, fl USA - Thursday, February 12, 2015 at 18:11:56 (PST)
Have you ever tried to work with government or officials of any kind at instituting driver training programs to alleviate traffic? I've tried writing to my rep but got no response. I know if we can get someone to listen we can do a lot of good, but I'm not very charismatic in that fashion. I think may be I will try to create a YouTube video or some other kind of social media campaign.

All the cool stuff is happening in Europe, while over here the experts sneer at such stuff. There was a public info project in Atlanta, but they got little funding and it only ran for weeks. But at the same time, this website slowly infects the whole US population, and today I see four or five gap-leaving drivers every day on my commute. When I started all of this back in early 1998, I never saw any gap-leavers at all, just truckers. Also, I think that anti-tailgating public campaigns have been tried and failed (I remember seeing TV ads in the 60s.) If experts are certain that this training always fails, they won't try it. If they're certain that they'd have to train 100% of drivers (rather than just 2%,) they're not going to even bother. But those old programs weren't based on modern discoveries in dynamics. Also, they never tried to show drivers *why* tailgating doesn't actually work, and never tried to actually demonstrate that tailgating is the main source of the huge daily backups during rush hour. -billb
Anyways, keep up your good work. I love seeing a scientific approach to common problems.

Charles S
Seattle, WA USA - Tuesday, February 10, 2015 at 06:38:02 (PST)

Hi William, I've been enjoying your posts on electricity and it's helping clear up some questions i had however i find that some of the explanations are lacking in detail. Specifically i'm trying to understand how electromagnetic energy/waves are produced by e.g. a battery. I've read that electromagnetic waves are produced when charged particles are accelerated. Are electromagnetic waves just osculating electromagnetic fields? If so how exactly are the produced from accelerated charge? How are they guided by the wires carrying the current, and how are they converted into visible light in e.g. a light bulb? Thanks a bunch Tristan
Melbourne, VIC Australia - Tuesday, February 03, 2015 at 18:36:13 (PST)
Simply Awesome! A different kind of explanation.
Suneel Gupta
Chandigarh, Chandigarh India - Monday, February 02, 2015 at 06:38:24 (PST)
Very interesting website, I suspect I will be coming back often.
Joany Orozco
Miami, FL USA - Saturday, January 10, 2015 at 20:39:50 (PST)
RE: trux driving side by side trying to pass. If slower truk slows down for ten seconds the passer can get by and free that lane. You lost less than ten seconds. I always did this but most are too self absorbed.
gregg petersen
gravois mills, mo USA - Saturday, January 10, 2015 at 12:23:02 (PST)
Bill, As an EE it always bugged me that I didn't REALLY GROK electricity. I earned great grades in college, graduated and have used my "knowledge" to put food on my family's table for years, and yet, until reading and re-reading your electricity works I always felt an uneasiness...I didn't REALLY "GET IT" like I needed to....Thank you SO MUCH for your electricity writings and please don't stop! are making a huge difference. Have you published a consolidated work on electricity or are you thinking of doing so? With sincere appreciation, Robert
MD USA - Tuesday, December 23, 2014 at 06:19:20 (PST)
Does violet light magnetize iron! From the works of Professor Domenico Lino Morichini , to Mary Somerville and onwards...Have you played around with this experiment at all? Oh and..Thank you for turning me onto scratch holograms, I'm buying a CNC in 2015 and am making my first set of straight from Maya holograms ! *) Excelsior!
Shoghi Castel de Oro
Los Angeles, CA USA - Monday, December 15, 2014 at 00:10:18 (PST)
This is a great site Thank you
Damietta, Egypt / Damietta / Zarqa USA - Thursday, December 11, 2014 at 18:03:25 (PST)
I have been supposedly teaching how PN junction work But only now I understand it intuitively. Thanks a lot
Omer Korech
Israel - Wednesday, December 03, 2014 at 01:29:49 (PST)
In reference to the LEVITRON article on your website,
The question came up as to whether Bill Hones or Roy Harrigan invented the LEVITRON, and whether Roy Harrigan got ripped off, is an interesting article and saga like a cliffhanger theater episode. After having looked further into the topics of anti-gravity and levitation, mag-lev, and gyros, I saw how that Eric Laithwaite had already invented and patented the large scale model of the floating ball, or magnetically levitated sphere. His invention of this was in the 1970's and the video of his invention in operation is readily seen on youtube. So, it seems neither Roy nor Bill were the original patented inventors. Eric Laithwaite was. His patants are easily found on google. Laithwaite's wasn't a Levitron, wasn't a permanent magnet lifter. His was AC maglev coils, and maglev itself goes years back before Laithwaite. Laithwaite's invention was AC induction levitation of conductors: levitation of nonmagnetic metals. Levitron is DC levitation of a spinning magnet. -billb

j brooks
Houston, Tx USA - Monday, December 01, 2014 at 10:16:09 (PST)
Hi There, I have come accross your site by chance - whilst looking to make a very simple generator for my sons school project (he is 7). Your cardboard versionlooks excellent, and just what I am looking for!

I wanted to ask though - I know you say that I MUST use the materials detailed - but can other, similarly sized magnets work. Iam finding the exact size hard to come by (he in the UK!). Perhaps I could use neodymium magnets? Please let me knwo what you think...

Excellent site!

Thanks Daniel
Oxford, UK - Wednesday, November 19, 2014 at 05:13:28 (PST)

I googled 'three pronged plug' attempting to figure out if I needed to put one in a plumbing pipe lamp and found your marvelous website. Learned more about electricity than in my previous 73 years, and my son-in-law and I laughed more than a few times at your fascinating stories. Thank you for being bright, informative, and funny! We read the whole thing!
Jan Bennett
Arlee, MT USA - Saturday, November 15, 2014 at 16:54:23 (PST)
I found a cracked spot/small hole in the 'ceiling' of my GE microwave's inner lining. Is it dangerous to use it now? The lining appears bubbled and brittle, too, up there. GE says replace it. Must I?
Donna Lussier
Murphy, NC USA - Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 17:35:28 (PDT)
I have loved this page for years. I am using many of the quotes you generously harvested in my upcoming book, "Power Without Pills: One Psychiatrist's Guide to Healing and Growth."

Today I posted on my Facebook page one of your own: "Progress in science is something like climbing a mountain. Only most mountaineers don't set up a new basecamp every ten feet, then leap out to attack anyone who tries to climb past."

-- Bill "huge ego" Beaty

I love it. It's not always true; sometimes great scientists' work is ignored (my favorite example: John E. Sarno, MD... curing chronic pain for decades with a lecture. No attacks from modern medicine... he's ignored.

PS: As a psychiatrist I liked your failure to capitalize "huge ego"... it creates an odd, paradoxical, oxymoronicish quirky feel, which I like.

Frank Murphy, DO
Longview, TX USA - Friday, October 24, 2014 at 05:10:14 (PDT)

Hi Bill; Been a few years! Glad to see you are still the geek studying us freaks! Lol!

Wow! Princeton beat a dead horse to draw strange conclusions. Haha! I'm now 52 and wanted to turn you on to a new thing I learned. The electricity plays heck on our muscles and neurological system over time! Getting struck by lightening didn't help me in the 90's, but have been fighting bicep probs about a year now! Just figured out from my electric. From my 8 year d grandson! Glad he lessons at school and to me! Killer pain as knots move place to place sometimes just flipping a light switch. I'm far from you but help when I can. In NC so on my own. Lol. Take care friend. Thanks for info from your research. Would help with more on paypal but am disabled in the south now. A woman alone down here doesn't do well in such a situation, since I did physical labor. I deserve it for moving south. Duh. Take care. ;)
Crystal Osborne
Asheboro , NC USA - Friday, October 03, 2014 at 23:32:29 (PDT)

William :) I want to cry from happiness... Thanks alllllllot
Muzamel Noor
Surat, Gujarat USA - Thursday, September 18, 2014 at 01:28:06 (PDT)
For me you are like a Bowl of Water in a Desert...
May Allah(God)Keep you Alive Till i see in person
:) Eat good food i don't want to loose you Beaty

Muzamel Noor
Surat, Gujarat INDA - Thursday, September 18, 2014 at 01:20:41 (PDT)
With regards to your "Threadlike streams of 'Electric Wind', 1998" at url
The sun seen at 19.3 nm from the Solar Dynamics observatory has features alot like what you demonstrate. This makes sense to me as an electronics engineer, that the rotating sun is a dynamo. But the conventional explanation for all the features is 'magnetic field lines' because there is an assumption that the solar atmosphere is an arbitrarily good conductor so no electric fields can be sustained, thus ideal magnetohydrodynaics is the conventional way to look at it. It doesn't look like that to me! Wonderful program for looking at the Solar Dynamics Observatory downlink archive:

David Saroff
Charlottesville, VA USA - Saturday, September 06, 2014 at 21:14:48 (PDT)
I am a older person just looking for answers... At night I have been seen what I thought were stars but what frighten me was these stars began to move. These stars or balls of light are either shapes of blue, red or white. I can scarcely see a few beams shooting or aiming at the same mark in the sky. Is this possible? I search the web trying to find answers but have yet to find anything. Trust me I am not off my rocker or eccentric. I don?t want to push my opinion on anyone else because of the consequences that may take place. Have you heard of such a thing?
Keep silent
Los Angeles , ca USA - Saturday, September 06, 2014 at 21:03:47 (PDT)
I am a older person just looking for answers... At night I have been seen what I thought were stars but what frighten me was these stars began to move. These stars or balls of light are either shapes of blue, red or white. I can scarcely see a few beams shooting or aiming at the same mark in the sky. Is this possible? I search the web trying to find answers but have yet to find anything. Trust me I am not off my rocker or eccentric. I tried explaining this to my wife, I don?t want to push my opinion on her or anyone else because of the consequences that may take place. Have you heard of such a thing?
Keep silent
whittier, ca USA - Saturday, September 06, 2014 at 21:02:48 (PDT)
I was wondering if the website is a scam. It sounds too good to be it? Thanks casey
Casey Coleman
Utica, Ny USA - Tuesday, September 02, 2014 at 10:48:14 (PDT)
Does anyone know where I can get a giant prism?
Robin C
USA - Tuesday, August 12, 2014 at 15:32:10 (PDT)
Thanks a million for the article on capacitors (water-filled sphere). I was trying to square with why current flows through a capacitor while it's charging. If it's accumulating charge, then the current should flow in, but not out the other side! Thanks again!
CO USA - Friday, August 08, 2014 at 14:04:05 (PDT)
Bill Betty, Read your article: Tesla's big mistake? Wow, you are a ducking idiot who knows just enough to be dangerous.
USA - Thursday, August 07, 2014 at 08:54:51 (PDT)
Hi. I have just started playing with transistors and read the article. Thinking for yourself is almost a lost paradigm within science. YOU SHALL THINK AND EXPLAIN THE WAY WE DO.(period)

[In school, everything is based on the single right answer. In textbooks and on tests, there always has to be just ONE right answer, otherwise all tests would turn into essay questions, and teachers would have too much work in grading. (And, if there's just one right answer on the text, then all the different textbooks have to use the same one, or students would get suspicious.) But out in the real world it's this instead: "If you don't have two or three different approaches to explaining something, it means that you don't really understand it." -billb]
I have just tried out transistors as switches, and the voltages and currents needed to operate a BC547 or BC557 is ridiculously low. Almost won't register on my multimeter. To me they don't really amplify current per se, they source it as a switch. But no-matter the interpretation, this trial and error testing has helped me understand why most people run with the amplifier model. And I see how it can be misleading. Your article has done a good job of pointing this out. I wish we would strive for more simpler and thorough explanations within science and engineering, because to me it is sometimes eternal soup, with glimpses of sudden clarity. In short; we should change our dietary needs into more solid foods. ;-)

Kristiansand, Norway - Saturday, August 02, 2014 at 06:29:20 (PDT)

I've been fascinated by your works about scratch hologram.You've explained detailed in your website but I'm sorry that I'm still pretty confused about the question of whether it's a real hologram or not. My question is mainly based on the fact that the scratch hologram really works like a stereogram or stereo photograph. You've pointed out that it's not,but you didn't explain it. In Gardner's paper "A Mechanically Made Hologram?",the geometrical analysis of the formation of the image point is totally about the formation of depth of a point in a stereogram,isn't it? And my second question is about the "line scatterer",the scratch with the width of about few hundreds nanometers is clearly could function like a fringe and thus diffract light into all direction(and thus scatter into a cone-like shape) but if we enlarge the scratch ,the cross section is like a concave mirror and can also scatter like into cone-like shape,am I right? Finally,I think the rainbow hologram is actually is actually the same as conventional hologram but it harness the technique of reducing the band width to reduced image blur so we could observe the image under sun light. But the scratch hologram has nothing to do with interference and diffraction(when enlarge the scratch),could we really see it as a real hologram? Looking forward to your reply.
Chengyi Luo
Guangzhou , Guangdong China - Monday, July 28, 2014 at 01:25:06 (PDT)
My 9-year old loves science and loves your site. We built the cardboard generator with your help. He has this funny idea of attaching something similar to his dog's tail and calculating how much electricity she can actually produce. Any advice? I love his enthusiasm but I am not sure how to proceed; he wants to do this for a science fair project. I was thinking of a doggie diaper with lightweight parts attached. Perhaps the dog could wear it on her walk to calculate how much electricity could be made? I've seen similar items for bicycles. Thanks, Bertha V
Bertha Vazquez
Coral Gables, Fl USA - Sunday, July 20, 2014 at 12:00:42 (PDT)
Why not try a circular bowl of stainless steel (connected to negative polarity) filled with tap water and connect a small point electrode in the center of it and pulse DC at between 600Hz and 16kHz using a constant current generator? The point should be in the absolute center of the bowl.
Sweden - Wednesday, July 02, 2014 at 13:09:26 (PDT)
Just wanted to share a simple aviation science project that is making the rounds, walkalong gliding. It is a cool way of soaring paper airplanes on a piece of cardboard. It's a wacky way to hack sustained and controlled flight.
Phil Rossoni
Belmont, ma USA - Tuesday, June 24, 2014 at 10:43:30 (PDT)
love the site Bill.
one thing i haven't seen on the site is any mention of walter rawls and albert roy davis's work on magnetism

USA - Wednesday, June 18, 2014 at 15:25:06 (PDT)
i have just been reading your pages on the Kelvin electrostatic generator and had 2 ideas
1] would not electrostatic be useful for keeping the rings charged.
http://www. /idea/An_20electrostatic _20diodes
2] using diodes it should be possible to connect these in series ( or as a voltage multiplier ) to produce as large a voltage as you could want.

paul fellows
middlesbrough, uk - Tuesday, June 17, 2014 at 05:18:59 (PDT)
Does Bill have an article on the "Power Factor" (scam) correction devices advertized on the net? The ridiculous claims these people are making for these devices is almost criminal.

Stacy, MN, mn USA - Sunday, June 15, 2014 at 07:25:46 (PDT)
This is the first time since college (some 40 years ago) that I finally figured out why I did not do well in electricity portion of physics. I graduated with a professional degree in a science related field with good grades and could not ever figure out how that escaped me.
C Standley
Sunnyvale, ca USA - Friday, June 13, 2014 at 13:03:46 (PDT)
I loved the way you explained and i am going to make the same for my school project. But the problem is that I live in India and i do not know from where I can get the material. If you have any information please help. Thank you for the information
Rishabh Chauhan
New Delhi, Delhi India - Wednesday, May 28, 2014 at 08:29:23 (PDT)
Thank you for the traffic info. I commute 5 days a week to the UW from Olympia. It is usually an hour and a half each way, but I am obsessed with the causes of these silly jams! I am such a nerd, I had to find out.....and here it is! I have always done the slow with lots of space in front of me because I thought it would be easier on my car, come to find out, it is also helping with the jams! I am wanting to put a Go Pro camera in my car and record patterns. Fascinating. Thank you.
Jen Lee
Lacey, wa USA - Friday, May 23, 2014 at 22:19:00 (PDT)
I need info on deciphering a dream, and some supernatural happenings from childhood and up. Also one specific dream about the end of the world as it seemed that has significant weight on me. Please e-mail me back.
Robert LeClaire
St. Paul Park, Mn USA - Saturday, May 17, 2014 at 04:34:09 (PDT)
I found your site because I am 1)interested in science education (director or Stonerose Eocene Fossil Site for 13 years - open to the public for fossil collecting) and 2) because I have an assignment in technical English that requires I critique a website. So I choose your because I want to peruse it fully. I am also currently taking a physics class that is kicking my butt. Anyway great science site - keep up the good work.
Catherine Brown
Republic, WA USA - Wednesday, May 14, 2014 at 06:56:22 (PDT)
hi, I was watching your amazing short video of making liquid nitrogen. I would like to ask if its safe for food.
I want to apply this method to my making of molecular desserts. It's a chocolate cigar, with smoke coming out of one end. That requires dipping the end into liquid nitrogen. So i'm not sure if this 99% alcohol method is safe for consumption.
Much appreciated for your answer!

hk - Tuesday, May 13, 2014 at 09:16:30 (PDT)
I have had experiences ranging from causing radios to static out in my presence, "small" metal objects resisting my presence and bouncing away, unable to wear clothing with tags sewn in (the metallic irritates/sears into my skin), my skin shows a fluorescent blue when a photo is taken of me (only under certain conditions), huge blisters (water blisters) form on the bottoms of my feet (primarily my left foot) and when the blister pops and I pull away the skin there is "perfectly" formed skin underneath "unmarred".

I have made the faces of newer cell phones change a variety of colors from black to blues, greens, yellows...and this has happened from a distance as well as in the same room when I call the person(s) with the newer cell phones.

A few of my friends have said that I'm a human conductor (battery) because lint like products will cling to me when walking in stores (almost like a vacum'cleaner sucking lint up through the store). My hair goes off the charts when walking by store windows, like its trying to cling to the glass and yes I am constantly being shocked, shocking others. I have photos and testimonials, even a DVD for proof of all that I have mentioned.

So you tell this something scientific, spiritual or what?
Aurora, Co USA - Tuesday, May 13, 2014 at 06:30:25 (PDT)

Electric People ==== Have you investigated if there is a link between that and almost having an allergy to metal especially jewelery ?
Fran Anderson
wv USA - Monday, May 12, 2014 at 08:11:27 (PDT)
Hello, Bill. Thank you for sharing the information regarding the phenomena of crashing computers, street lights, batteries, et cetera on Coast to Coast AM . It's a comfort to know that I am not alone. At least I am not "afflicted" all of the time, only under certain circumstances.

Looking forward to hear and read more about your study.
Christine Thompson
Redlands, CA USA - Monday, May 12, 2014 at 04:17:44 (PDT)

Amazing, I am not alone. For years street lights have turned off when I approached and back on when I passed, even in the car. I can clear up static on t.v.s and radios by standing near them. But I used to hear radio stations in my teeth until I had dental work done at the age of 20. When I was little I lived near a proving ground and my father worked there during WWII, we would go out at night and watch things exploding above our house and I thought maybe it had something to do with that.
Fullerton, Ca USA - Monday, May 12, 2014 at 03:06:48 (PDT)
Im listening to coasttocoastam and ur talking about people an electricity. Im one of those people I effect outlets if I go t o the store I will draw half inch or more arc and it hurts. Even during the summer, also mess up computors my cell phone. I always wondered what was wrong with me. my phone number 318-773-4609. Thanks for letting me an others that we are not alone.
janet fowler
SHREVEPORT, La. USA - Sunday, May 11, 2014 at 22:43:24 (PDT)
Hi Could talk to you about street lights, and why I think it works. Am in Seattle on Sundays. Send me a message if you want to chat. Jerry
Sequim, Washington USA - Sunday, May 11, 2014 at 22:39:40 (PDT)
hi, I'm older, 48, and I have been wondering for years why street lights go out when I walk under them.
lisa a. sidels
Garden Grove, California USA - Sunday, May 11, 2014 at 22:30:32 (PDT)
I so appreciate your micowave experiments, i have for years wanted to put a diamond in a microwave to see what will happen. i cannot really spare a microwave nor do i own a diamond. Have i perchance finally found the man for the job? anyway have enjoyed surfing your site.
USA - Sunday, May 11, 2014 at 07:05:06 (PDT)
Neil Clark Reinhardt
Hawthorne, California USA - Tuesday, April 01, 2014 at 21:06:05 (PDT)
Hi Bill,
I just wanted to thank you for stopping by my blog post on the late merge and to thank you for your comments. As I mentioned in my reply, both my husband and I are huge fans of yours -- especially your work in traffic!

We also agree that you would love to drive in Turkey. The efficiency there is mind boggling -- all rules of the road, including numbers of lanes, red lights, speed limits, etc are loose suggestions. Where there are two driving lanes available, they line up five across at a red light. If your brake light is still on at "red-yellow" they will honk to remind you that the light will change soon. There is no sound wave as the light changes. The whole group of cars begins to move as one object. And the horn is a way to communicate - there is no punishing of other drivers, people are happy to let you in when they can!

Of course, they still have terrible traffic (and one of the highest rates of accidents in the world) but I miss it terribly when I am waiting at a pointless light or when, if the guy in front of me would just inch forward a couple feet, I could make my turn and be on my way! Have you ever had a chance to visit a country where the driving culture is similar?

Thanks again.
Alyssa Garrelts
USA - Sunday, March 23, 2014 at 00:56:50 (PDT)

Hi, I kove this site. Would be glad if you add my little Project to the Free Energy Links. Although I do offer a kit, one can build it without it, by reading the comments on the corresp. youtube video page. The tendency of water to evaporate is an untapped source if energy, just like the expansion force of wood when put into water. Unlike many other FE things, this gives you a little success. It's a real thing. See here:
http://www. watermotor/ index.htm

Zurich, Switzerland - Friday, January 31, 2014 at 05:34:31 (PST)
There is a interesting work posted online called, "The Story of Our Planet" By E.W.King. this guy mixes modern science with the Christian Genesis account like I've never seen before. Look it up and check it out. Interesting sci-fi if nothing else :)
San Jose, Ca USA - Sunday, January 05, 2014 at 14:18:22 (PST)
Love the article on Laser Coherency. Keep up the great work.
John Richmond
Wadsworth, Oh USA - Saturday, December 14, 2013 at 04:01:23 (PST)
Wouldn't it make sense for Tesla to hand over incorrect data and theory knowing that his debt to Morgan and signing over his patents would cause the competition of free energy to own the means in which it could be created? Meaning that if Morgan owned the rights to how to distribute free energy, it wouldn't be free if it were ever created in would be a violation of copyright or make Morgan richer. No one would be able to distribute free energy. That's reason enough not to divulge accurate information that the wrong person could patent/copyright develop and sell. Everything Tesla was against. He didn't want anyone to make money off power. He wanted free power for everyone. The problem is/was that it's going to cost someone to build up the means by which free energy can be distributed. Will someone invest for free for the greater good of all and not profit financially?
Darla Laughlin
Henderson, NV USA - Friday, November 29, 2013 at 03:49:15 (PST)
I have a beef with your physics-based explanation of how the humble transistor works. I readily accept that once you've applied a forward bias to the BE junction you've managed to stuff the base full of electrons. But doesn't the potential across the BC junction constitute a reverse-biased diode? I can't agree that the BC depletion layer is like an air gap at all - it's positively littered with atoms of your semiconductor of choice plus those of the the doping agent. And when when electrons jump an air gap, they have this amusing habit of ionising the atoms in the air along their path - in a semiconductor, we'd call it breakdown. It's just not working for me.
Mike May
Worksop, Nottinghamshire United Kingdom - Tuesday, November 12, 2013 at 01:28:29 (PST)
by theway it seems you forgot amon the maverick: shechtmann

http://www science/2013/jan /06/dan-shechtman- nobel-prize-chemistry -interview

about semmelweiss, don't forget his predecessors

"In past centuries, the greatest killer of women was fever following childbirth. One woman in six died of this fever. In 1795, Alexander Gordon of Aberdeen suggested that the fevers were infectious processes, and he was able to cure them. The consensus said no. In 1843, Oliver Wendell Holmes claimed puerperal fever was contagious, and presented compelling evidence. The consensus said no. In 1849, Semmelweiss demonstrated that sanitary techniques virtually eliminated puerperal fever in hospitals under his management. The consensus said he was a Jew, ignored him, and dismissed him from his post. There was in fact no agreement on puerperal fever until the start of the twentieth century. Thus the consensus took one hundred and twenty five years to arrive at the right conclusion despite the efforts of the prominent "skeptics" around the world, skeptics who were demeaned and ignored. And despite the constant ongoing deaths of women."

Crichton cite other tragedy

"There is no shortage of other examples. In the 1920s in America, tens of thousands of people, mostly poor, were dying of a disease called pellagra. The consensus of scientists said it was infectious, and what was necessary was to find the "pellagra germ." The US government asked a brilliant young investigator, Dr. Joseph Goldberger, to find the cause. Goldberger concluded that diet was the crucial factor. The consensus remained wedded to the germ theory. Goldberger demonstrated that he could induce the disease through diet. He demonstrated that the disease was not infectious by injecting the blood of a pellagra patient into himself, and his assistant. They and other volunteers swabbed their noses with swabs from pellagra patients, and swallowed capsules containing scabs from pellagra rashes in what were called "Goldberger's filth parties." Nobody contracted pellagra. The consensus continued to disagree with him. There was, in addition, a social factor?southern States disliked the idea of poor diet as the cause, because it meant that social reform was required. They continued to deny it until the 1920s. Result?despite a twentieth century epidemic, the consensus took years to see the light."

recently there is a contriversy with Dan Everet and linguist
http:// aboutus/news/ display/?id=8083
http:// overthrowing-chomsky/

reading that document .com/watch?v= yPqVAaBLfm0

they show how the Brasilian university organized a boycott, refusing even to critic and attend at his conference.

They manipulated the FUNAI, which give permit to go there, so they refuse Everett the permit.
Villejuif, - France - Sunday, November 10, 2013 at 00:33:24 (PST)

Thanks for your list of maverick inventors.

I quoted it (the directory, kept the link) on lenr-forum, in a long list of scientist bullying...

Prepare to add Flesichmann&pons, Bockris, Miles, Andrea Rossi, ... to your list

http://www. -for-policy-makers/

I propose some analysis of the pathological denial

http://www. lenr-is-real-beyond-any -reasonable-doubt/

and Jed rothwell have written a bloody article to explain the unscientific behavior of physicist community, as usual

http://pages. ~kowalski/cf/ 293wikipedia.html

I tweeted you list to Nassim nicholas taleb which defend the same vision that science is done by practitioners, trial and error, maverick, and not by academics.

Read Antifragile...
Villejuif, - France - Sunday, November 10, 2013 at 00:16:47 (PST)

Re Tesla blowing up Tunguska but lacking the required miles-long antenna, you do in an earlier question mention a possible plasma antenna. Well, maybe...
Shhh! -billb Also your guestbook needs a tidy-up, badly!

USA - Sunday, November 03, 2013 at 18:24:25 (PST)

Your pages on " How Do Transistors Work?" were a godsend! I have been trying to learn/understand electronics since I was about 14 (I'm 52 now) and FINALLY someone explained this concept in a way my inquiring and visually oriented brain could comprehend!
Great page and thanks!

Paul H.
Newalla, OK USA - Tuesday, October 29, 2013 at 17:53:22 (PDT)
Hi. Very neat info on scams. I had been involved over the summer with the Founder of several "free energy" companies, a Mr. Phil Talbert, thorugh doing work for his publishing Company Astral. He is totally connected wit the Searl people. Seriously wondering about you folks opinion on the 'Great" searl. Is he a 'Great Oz?'
Jamo Lorswal
Fort Lauderdale, FL USA - Saturday, October 26, 2013 at 20:31:44 (PDT)
Have you ever thought about publishing an e-book or guest authoring on other blogs? I have a blog centered on the same topics you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my viewers would appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an email.
Jaiper Feliciano
Houston, TX United States - Tuesday, October 22, 2013 at 07:52:30 (PDT)
I'm a trustee with Awesome Seattle. We give out $1000 of totally free cash money to someone with an awesome project idea in Seattle or the PNW every month. This month, we want really off-the-wall fun ideas rather than community-service type stuff, so I'm trying to get the word out to creative hacker/maker types in the city!

Details and example crazy projects, such as meat-filled pi?tas for lions at the zoo (my fav), or LED-filled balloon dance parties:

http://www. challenge/

So I was wondering:

1. Do you have crazy awesome project ideas that you'd like to throw into the mix?

2. Could you send this challenge out to your membership and anyone else who might have cool ideas?

Let me know if you're willing to spread the word! Deadline is Oct 31st at midnight, and I'm available to consult on applications or bounce ideas around with people.

Rachel Popkin Trustee, Awesome Seattle
Rachel Popkin
Seattle, WA USA - Sunday, October 20, 2013 at 09:48:45 (PDT)

Is this Bill Beatty? I am a LONG time admirer who finally has access to the internet again- I used to use your essays to teach science kids in high school electricity... Thanks for your work over the years, and your courage in the face of the tower of babel scienc priesthood know-it-alls !! thanks, again, stuart
Stuart vencill
Joseph, OR USA - Tuesday, October 15, 2013 at 12:24:08 (PDT)
Interesting! Pegasus Research Consortium is following your work, my freind, and we would love to have you as an honorary member of our forum, we research all forms of energy, propulsion & taboo subjects, our analysis is free & accurate. Well done, even though i suspect you are too busy to join us ;) Luke, global moderator, founder Inventors Group at PRC....
USA - Monday, October 14, 2013 at 09:49:51 (PDT)
This is a really good read for me, Must admit that you are one of the best blogger I ever saw.Thanks for posting this informative article.
Stephanie Smith
New York, NY United States - Monday, October 07, 2013 at 08:14:53 (PDT)
Bill, thanks to your obsession for getting things exactly right, my obsession for trying to understand things exactly right has been temporarily satisfied (with respect to the basic principles of how electricity behaves in this case). And I'll be back for more. Cheers mate!
New Zealand - Monday, October 07, 2013 at 04:49:13 (PDT)
Hey I really love your website. You have a love of great stuff on science that are very information and engaging. Thanls
Pune, MH INDIA - Monday, October 07, 2013 at 02:01:22 (PDT)
i just want to ask you a question about inductor how it drops max voltage across it when we just apply supply volage?and also back emf does produce any back current?please answer my question
india - Sunday, September 22, 2013 at 11:04:41 (PDT)
HI.. i am acctualy work at a company that sell electrical equipment such as wiring devices, protection etc. But i get confusing weeks. Becasue i want sell and explain about RCD but.. many of "source" that "RCD" is to protect human from fatal electrocultation. Then i've try to find about electrocultation.. and it say ... when the current flow trough your body.. i ll try to find what the heck is current.. then i find in "you" there is no such "current" its flow... so getting confuse. but after spend everyday read your article.. my brain fully missconcept. since a long-long time ago, maybe people around me.. they think that... in the cable the "current" is flowing.... Since i've read your "out of mainstream teaching", start to understand .. the complex about electricity.. hahahaha.. for me is still complex .. That's all .. thanks alot ....
Tulus Budi Susilo
Bandung, Indonesia - Thursday, September 19, 2013 at 05:25:20 (PDT)
Still feeling weird about what I saw last night. There was a thunderstorm in the area. A light came down, twirled in front of my car, then went along side of me and disappeared. I was sober and three of the six people in my car witnessed the same thing. We were all afraid to say what we had seen, immediately. But within a few seconds, one passenger said, "what the hell was that?"

We all admitted to seeing the same thing simotainously right away. I'm still freaked out by this
Brian Subocz
Northampton, Ma USA - Friday, August 23, 2013 at 22:32:42 (PDT)

Simply awesome, brilliant, and scintillating. Loved tesla page. Hats off to you, and hope this site runs for ages...
Vivek Brahmbhatt
Bharuch, Gujarat India - Wednesday, August 14, 2013 at 22:22:07 (PDT)
Anyone in need of light sensitive paper for experimentation? Spectral Sensitivity: 360 to 620 nanometers. I have several rolls of this.
James Garner
Albuquerque, NM USA - Saturday, August 10, 2013 at 12:22:23 (PDT)
thank you science hobbyist
raf sistemleri
istanbul, USA - Monday, August 05, 2013 at 10:45:27 (PDT)
Depuis J?ai vu le nom d?Antoine Fabre d?Olivet sur votre site, Je vous invite ?voir nos ?ude et les grands progr? r?lis?, relative ?ses d?ouvertes sur la langue h?ra?ue et sa origine hi?oglyphique, sur notre site web: www [DOT]

Merci par les r?acteurs de genesirestituita.

If you love science, we love you

Angelo Bianchi
- Friday, July 12, 2013 at 02:55:01 (PDT)

Hello William,

I wanted to thank you for your excellent explanation of things electricity related.

I received education with emphasis on electrical engineering and i have to admit i never "understood" electricity. I studied all the formulas but what this capital I with unit [Ampere] was really standing for and what was travelling with the speed of light always remained nebulous to me.

Your writings finally provided my mind with sensible images (for now I only read a small part of the pages starting with the transistor but will surely go on) dissolving this uncomfortness about the subject.

14 years after my diploma i am still very interested in science and increasingly found that things related to electricity in particular did not "feel right".

When I saw that your articles are from when I was tought things in an unclear way - at least - I had to tell you how important your work is!

I sincerely thank you for your efforts!

Mr. Marian H.

Educated in Austria/Europe

(As you see not only the US is affected;-)

Marian H.
Austria - Thursday, July 11, 2013 at 09:42:16 (PDT)

how can i do to my new science club to my school pls
Rapheal Essilfie
ghana, USA - Tuesday, July 09, 2013 at 04:06:15 (PDT)
Hah this is funny stuff, I will no doubt find myself " Launching thought-balls at irritating drivers" whilst driving to work in the mornings.

I need to liven up my skip bin site a bit more with humor after reading this I think :)
Brisbane, QLD AUS - Friday, June 28, 2013 at 05:01:05 (PDT)

thank you very much with your discussion on "balloon balance" experiment. I was in 5th when i actually performed the experiment and showcased it to the parents and visitors on science day.

I became a mechanical engineer and learnt buoyancy.

Because we were child then and believed whatever is taught to us was right, it came as a shock to me that such a lie was taught to us.

I was searching for truth, and i found it here.

Thank you.
India - Thursday, June 27, 2013 at 01:08:43 (PDT)

I'm an aspiring yachtmaster and came here looking for a simple explanation of electricity that I could apply to the marine environment. What a discovery! Your clarity, analogy and meter are just what I needed!

One thing I would say is that I think you could take the 'bicycle wheel' analogy further. This was the moment that clicked everything for me!

The explanation of the 'instant friction' caused on the 'holding hand', when movement is made with the 'power hand' is, I think, I perfect illustration of the difference between the 'movement of charge' (amps) and the 'movement of power' (watts).

The extension I would recommend is to add volts and ohms by saying that the hand which is moving the wheel (the 'power hand' could belong to a young child, or a world-class strongman. Each may move the wheel at the same speed, of course (amps remain the same), but how hard you would have to squeeze to stop the wheel (ohms) would be different in each case.

In this way, you can describe the child as having a low voltage, and the strongman as having high voltage. I think this ties together the concepts quite nicely in that analogy.

At a stretch, you could perhaps even extend further to cover the concept of doubling volts = quadrupling watts. You could suggest that the person moving the wheel does so by grabbing it, spinning it, then releasing with one hand as he grabs with the other and repeats the process. In the analogy, if the person were to release the wheel, it would continue to spin. Obviously, the stronger the person, the faster the wheel would spin.

The hand squeezing to stop the wheel would still get get hot trying to stop the wheel, even if the 'power hand' had let go completely. So there is power in the movement of the wheel itself and how hard it would be to stop would be related to who had been doing the spinning - it would be easier to stop the child's spinning wheel than the strong man's.

If the 'power hand' had not let go, however, the wheel would be ever more difficult to stop! Not only would the you have to overcome the spinning of the wheel, but also the strength of the person still spinning the wheel.

In this way, we can see that the strong man not only has the benefit of strength when he grabs and spins, but he also has the benefit of being able to get to a faster spin rate - thus, to stop the wheel is made twice as difficult by combination of these two things.

Phew! I really hope I haven't misunderstood the underlying concepts now!

Thanks again for your very instructive page!
Ben McEvoy
Sydney, NSW Australia - Wednesday, June 05, 2013 at 19:35:15 (PDT)

Bill- Your site has got a ton of cool resources, and I'd love it if you added a link to our site somewhere it makes sense. My company manufacturers magnetic sweepers, separators, and other industrial magnets. Thank you!
Charlie Shields
Ventura, CA USA - Friday, May 31, 2013 at 14:49:51 (PDT)
really enjoyed your "why 3 prongs" article. request you add the swing back to HRG (high resistance grounding.) Mat
Mat Ansari
USA - Tuesday, May 07, 2013 at 11:26:27 (PDT)
I found your (i.e. Bill Beaty's) site via a youtube and a bit of googling.

You might be interested in which is a frozen forum, with evidence that nuclear weapons were a hoax, and presumably still are.

If you haven't heard the idea, it will probably seem a bit improbable. In which case the idea that nuclear power is also a fraud will seem even more improbable.

Anyway, have a look. It's entirely serious.
Ray West
Manchester, UK - Saturday, April 27, 2013 at 04:55:40 (PDT)

Many people have been persecuted for ideas that later turn out to be correct. The solution to this is simple: resolve that you'll never persecute anyone. And you can go further and put yourself in their shoes by developing your own new theory. However, unlike you, these people didn't pursue every idea they could think of. They chose a set of ideas that fit together and resonated with their personal beliefs. They made a synthesis that, although contradicting established knowledge, was coherent enough to robustly fill the gap that would be left if established knowledge was discarded. That's why everyone hated them.

An inevitable consequence of pursuing fringe theories is that there's a possibility you could be wrong. And if it someday turns out you were wrong, that would retroactively make you a liar. However, if you believe in your theory, you take that risk, because you know about the many people for whom such a letdown didn't happen.

As you explain yourself, it seems you are not that brave. For you the truth is not a precious gift worth trying to mine and smelt. For you the truth is just the cocaine sprinkled on your vegetables. You take in every idea you can find, with no selectivity, because you're determined to have the truth in your head. The problem is that even if you have the truth, you don't know the truth, because you have no way of finding it among all the countless contradictory alternatives.

This could be just your own problem, except you don't stop there. You unload your collected mess onto a public website, so whatever happens to someday be proven true will be linked to your name without you having done anything to earn it.
USA - Tuesday, April 23, 2013 at 04:54:08 (PDT)

Nice project. My site might be of interest for science hobbyists interested in ways to tap 'energy from the vacuum', why the aether is back again and why signals faster than the speed of light are possible.
Cornel Slenters
Switzerland - Friday, April 19, 2013 at 09:10:40 (PDT)
making a film on Zug Island
Adam Makarenko
Toronto, Ontario Canada - Wednesday, April 10, 2013 at 22:11:43 (PDT)

I found your Aviation and Education links on the internet and maybe you would like to add: http://www. /wright100eng/ special_wright.htm

I wrote the Dutch version ten years ago and since then it is visited by Dutch and Belgian schools for lessons and work pieces.

Since the website is visited by other than Dutch speaking people, I translated the website in (British) English.

It is about the amazing Wilbur and Orville story, but also about what followed with an amazing speed. The technical part covers the engine, the wing, control and how to build something light and strong.

I think it it suitable for grade 6-8 and beyond.

Kind regards,
Hans Walrecht
The Netherlands

Hans Walrecht
Alkmaar, Netherlands - Tuesday, April 09, 2013 at 09:27:27 (PDT)

You rock man.
Scott M Collingwood
Murwillumbah, NSW Australia - Wednesday, April 03, 2013 at 21:07:31 (PDT)
What a great site! Would that something this clear and understandable were written in all those numbing books I struggled thru in my youth. You have clarified some major questions I have had about electricity, and I thank you! Email me if you ever write a book (which you should). Thanks again!
jim rogers
columbus, oh USA - Sunday, March 31, 2013 at 05:54:23 (PDT)
Take a VDG into a photo dark room. It glows purple with time. With many watching, eventually one gets too close. Sort of like a perverse spin the bottle. Discovered this by accident with students.
Bob Pearson
Philomath, OR USA - Wednesday, March 27, 2013 at 20:53:53 (PDT)
Why do people hate science?

But Jesus said: ?Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side. Do not disbelieve, but believe? (John 20.27).

We think that: ?Put your finger here and put out your hand? is the basis and the criteria of modern science; i.e., look with your eyes and touch with your hands.

My name is Angelo Bianchi, I am a researcher, from Italy.

Each language has its own etymology, Biblical Hebrew no, why? And yet Fabre Antoine d'Olivet discovered and published it in 1814.

Following the Napoleonic campaign in Egypt, and about twenty years before Champollion deciphered the Egyptian hieroglyphs, D'Olivet discovered that also the Hebraic language, using the characters of its alphabet, expressed the ancient Egyptian language. This is the (unacceptable) discovery. On this basis, i.e. the Egyptian hieroglyphic language, D'Olivet produced the etymological dictionary of the Hebraic language, and restored the Hebraic grammar from the serious alterations produced by the LXX.

These words that you are reading are written in English. We can translate them into Braille or into Morse code. The means we used to write the message has changed but the language, the idiom, is still the same, the English language. Similarly, with the Greek characters the Copts expressed the Egyptian hieroglyphics. Instead of hieroglyphs or demotic, the message is expressed by way of other characters, the characters of the Greek language. D'Olivet discovered that also the Hebraic language, using the characters of its alphabet, expressed the ancient Egyptian language.

Every honor goes to Antoine Fabre d'Olivet. We have only added further studies to his great work, with a software for biblical studies and new scientific knowledge, unconceivable in the early 19th century.

In the new translation only the most complex ideas and concepts have been restored, while the simplest ones have remained almost unchanged.

If this new translation is fascinating for you and if you think that it should be studied more thoroughly, please see all our work, six years of work: Nine chapters of the Creation in the restored translation and interlinear translation; the etymological root vocabulary, notes and explanations, etc., in the website

Thus, now, Faith and Science can coexist.

I beg you, I beg you to spread it among your universities, in your country!

Do you rememeber Galileo Galilei? He was condamned; do you remember Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis? He died in a mental hospital, etc.

Sapere aude!

Please give me whichever answer, your opinion, your judgment Angelo, Italy
Angelo Bianchi, Italy
Italy - Sunday, March 24, 2013 at 06:51:33 (PDT)

Hey nice resource - glad I stop by.
Free Stuff
USA - Wednesday, March 13, 2013 at 20:37:14 (PDT)
Love your site! I am looking to explain Joule, watt, fluence and amp in a very simple and elementary way for a laser didactic curriculum. Help!?!? :)
scottsdale, az USA - Tuesday, March 05, 2013 at 13:01:46 (PST)
Bill, Thanks for helping to make the Let's Build a Goddam Tesla Museum campaign last fall. Your mini-coils were a big hit, and we are grateful for your contribution of them. I have had a few people ask if they could still get one, and I wondered if I could purchase a few more from you. If you don't have any left to sell, could you advise me on where the best source is for obtaining a few? I'll look forward to hearing from you. Thanks again. Jane
Jane Alcorn
Shoreham, NY USA - Friday, March 01, 2013 at 15:45:07 (PST)
Hello, just want to say thank you, I did the simple ac generator for my daughter's school project, it works perfect. I bought exact materials n followed instructions, thnx :)
Starling B.
Van Nuys, CA USA - Saturday, January 26, 2013 at 20:54:13 (PST)
Have a loop antenna transmitting at low frequency..coupled with a smaller loop antenna. Which I guess means both share the transmitting's antenna stored energy or Q,an electromagnetic field. While I know distance and such causes loss dont want to fuss on that right now. BUT say I have a loop antenna If my non-transmitting antenna that is coupled with the other loop antenna..suddenly starts transmitting..what does that do?
hampton, va USA - Wednesday, January 23, 2013 at 12:10:32 (PST)
Thank you Mr. Beaty. I'm trying to teach myself while teaching my kids ages 13 & 14 about electronics. In 1964 I was trying to teach myself electronics and had very little information (a couple of books.) Today, we have the Internet and very generous people such as yourself. We really appreciate your work and art of teaching. It's my opinion that to really know you must teach. You obviously know. Thank you again!
Bill Parsons
Redding, CA USA - Monday, January 21, 2013 at 01:34:26 (PST)
sigorta yap?an nakliyat firmalar?hangileridir merak edenlere bilgiler istanbulda (evden eve nakliyat istanbul firmas?
evden eve nakliyat
istanbul, 34746 TR - Wednesday, January 16, 2013 at 00:38:08 (PST)
Hi i saw your articale on 3D magnetic field and i would like to ask would the steel wool always need to be shook so hard for it to seperate? And would i need to shake it hard too when they have settled to the bottom. I am trying to build something similar but only with a acryllic cylinder and is fixed to something, the only thing i can do is rotate it so i can't keep shaking it that hard. If anyone has any answer please email me at Thanks alot.
singapore - Monday, January 07, 2013 at 07:01:49 (PST)
Please come back and save the vortex-l email list from Jojo Jaro the Vicious Troll. We need your moderation.
[Following of hunches, listening for divine inspiration, obeying commands of my subconscious, I wrote numerous warning messages but couldn't send a single one. It was 'just wrong.' Finally I decided to stop all such mystical crap and clamp down on vortex-L. Before I could do so, 1.) my car keys disappeared for half a day, 2.) My car battery died, 3.) I acquired food poisoning or stomach flu & was in bed 2days. When I finally recovered and got to a computer, it seemed that my subconscous had had its own plans, and had been using my acute infection to cure a ...chronic one. If I hadn't been bedridden, I'd have come in shooting, and messed it all up! -billb]
Vortex-L Reader
USA - Wednesday, January 02, 2013 at 22:52:30 (PST)

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