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COMMENT BOOK 2011-2012

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I work at Pacific Science Center, and we have a Vacuum tube Tesla Coil, Armstrong type, that we need to get rid of. If we can't get it a new home by Jan 8th, 2013, it goes into the tip. Beautiful old machine, 833A triode based. Works, a little battered after years of service. Must be able to take the entire thing off campus by 4:30 Tuesday the 8th.
Greg Gallacci
Seattle, WA USA - Wednesday, January 02, 2013 at 12:12:46 (PST)
Dear Mr. Bill Beaty,

Hi, I'm Ameya Dubey, a student from Indore,India.I'm preparing to give the JEE (Joint Entrance Examination) based on which they give you admission to the IITs (Indian Institute of Technology)- the top engineering colleges in India.By the way, getting admission in these colleges is every aspiring geek's dream.

They have recently added Semiconductor devices to their syllabus. And that includes basics on the BJT.

But the problem is - THE OFFICIAL PRESCRIBED TEXTBOOKS *SUCK*.It straightaway dives into current gains and voltage gains without actually describing how these damned devices actually work !

I have read the whole chapter, like, 50 times forwards and backwards.I have even referred to other reference books, but they didn't fare any better. I've contacted all teachers I had access to, but none of them actually had a clue as to how transistors basically work.

I can't afford good textbooks anyway. ( 1 US $ equals 50 Indian Rupees, so that should speak volumes for itself.)

I don't have access to good libraries.

All the "transistor" websites I have tried so far start discussing Ebers-Moll model and other swanky mathematical stuff right away, which goes way over my head.

That is until I read your article on "How Transistors *REALLY* Work".And that changed everything !

You totally made everything as clear as day. Your explanations remind me of Feynman, who also used masterful similies to convey a concept.


But I have more than just a thanks to offer. I also have a request for you.

I would TOTALLY love it ( and so would thousands of others) if you wrote articles on the following topics, the unique 'Bill Beaty' way.

> Common Emitter Configuration and Transistor Characteristics
> An Explanation of this Technical Jargon ( input resistance, current amplification factor, etc.)
> Transistor as a switch, ( the circuit diagram ) Vo vs Vi curve etc.
> Transistor as an amplifier ( CE config)
> Feedback amplifier and transistor oscillator
> Digital Electronics , Realization of the various logic gates.
> Further applications of the bipolar junction transistor.


I really am at the end of my rope, and have nowhere to go to.I would consider it a great kindness if you do manage to upload these articles latest by the end of January 2013.

Please do mail me regarding your decision on this.

Thanks for everything once again.

Yours truly, Ameya Dubey
Ameya Dubey
Indore, Madhya Pradesh India - Tuesday, December 25, 2012 at 06:19:46 (PST)

Hi Bill,

We can see from the page that you must be swamped with emails to respond to, and would guess people have sent you unsolicited crowd funding campaigns before. BUT, if you would take a moment to check our animated series inspired by TESLA, we think that you and your members/vistors would really enjoy it!

The show has a ton of really talented and motivated artists behind it that could use the help of Tesla fans everywhere.

We are already 40% of the way to our goal! So if you have a mail list of any kind, we would be eternally grateful for a shout out if you like what you see.?

(we tried to email you, but the server kept giving us an error, many apologies for having to go through the comments section)

Happy Holidays,

William Martinez & Zach Tolchinsky Creators and Producers of Tesla in Time PS Man Who Would Be King and Young Frankenstein are among the greatest! Great minds...
William Martinez
Studio City, California USA - Saturday, December 22, 2012 at 12:14:38 (PST)

As an enginner I would like to sincerely thank you for taking the time and making the effort to create such a great website. I cannot tell you how frustrated I get with what our children are being taught concerning electrical phenomena and your site will be required reading for my children. To be completely honest I have never seen the fundamentals laid out so well and in a way which is so easy to understand, not in college, not in any textbooks nor the literature. Excellent job.
Don Kornelson
Canada - Sunday, December 02, 2012 at 22:13:58 (PST)
I salute your ability to make sense of what we cannot see. I am 44 and have never really understood what "electricity" is. I have enjoyed your work and think I have a better idea about the magical element of energy flowing and how this has actually changed the world far more than we can appreciate. I saw a program about an issue of american currency in the late 19th century that acknowledged the discovery of electricity. We take it completely for granted now. We should not.

Many thanks, Marcel Sargeant
South Africa - Saturday, November 24, 2012 at 02:41:52 (PST)

Bill you are simply "awesome". Refreshing to know that minds like yours actually exist. I may give up writing all-together.

kudos; plaudits; etcetera etcetera etcetera:

thank you for eschewing obfuscation
rich camlin
Marlton, NJ USA - Tuesday, November 13, 2012 at 18:56:55 (PST)


We are two french girls , working on the topic that you studied : scratching holograms, for an important exam . We really want to work on this subject , but even teachers are saying that it is quite hard for us. We found your experience so amazing that we really want to work on it because it is engrave in our heart ! ;)

we have a lot of difficulties to understand how it works even after reading the conference. We would like to ask you our questions verbaly (skype) or by mail.

Skype adress: lea.denner.jerez (brest , britany , France)

or mail : dennerjerezlea@yahoo.fr thanks for the attention you will brought us Louison and L? .
Brest, France - Wednesday, November 07, 2012 at 08:59:23 (PST)

Thanks for the hovercraft project it was the coolest experiment at the science fair and was easy to make too on my own. It was the show stopper.
Henry Adu
Akosombo, Eastern region Ghana - Sunday, October 28, 2012 at 09:01:45 (PDT)
I've scoured through dozens of books and videos and the internet looking for the nuts and bolts of how the transistor works. I was so lucky to have found your site and excellent article! Thank you so much for helping me visualize the concepts... not just the prolific equations that are found everywhere! I FINALLY understood it!
Jimmy Nguyen
Spokane, WA USA - Monday, October 22, 2012 at 19:16:53 (PDT)
Dear Mr. Beaty, I like your 'science hobbyist' site; I learned (or rather, re-learned) a lot about electricity from it and still check it occasionaly.

Last time I read this article /miscon/whatener.html

And it reminded me that just as your site warns against 'bad science', there should be one that warns against 'bad philosophy' - God knows there is even more of the later than the former!

In the article, my favourite philosophical falacy can be found - that the 'water is not real' because it can be divided into atoms and finally into quarks - as if the quarks are somehow more 'real' because we can't divide them (yet). As if the contents of an article was not real because it is - on paper - composed of characters....

The point, of course, is that quarks are as real as is water (or the article). They are all the same - the concepts that human invent to account for the changes in the sensory input. And that is as close to reality as one is able to get using physics. One cannot leave his body and 'feel' the quarks; we can only try to invent concepts conforming to what we see.

Regards Renato
USA - Monday, October 08, 2012 at 16:45:02 (PDT)


eainc@emfrelief.com did a presentation to FREDOMFCHS explaining WIRING CLAD, and true enough THE HOUSEHOULD WIRING CAN GENERATE EMF THAT AMPLIFIES THE HUMAN BODY AS AN ANTENNA. If you take an FM receiver and put in to your GROUNDING and the reception gets better you have poor grounding and MIND CONTROL RADIATION IS ENTERING FROM THE VERY GROUNDING YOU SUPPOSE SHOULD BE PROTECTING YOU. In my ANTIMASER SHELTER I HAVE SUCCESSFULLY CUT OFF FM SIGNALS, AS WE ALL KNOW THE 27 Megahertz is used also for Mind Control. Now, I don't have time right now TO EXPLAINING TO YOU MY THEORY OF THE ANTI-SPACE ( All that Einstein dreamed of achieving but didn't have enough time to find ) and I don't have right now THE MIND, THE INSPIRATION to EXPLAIN YOU THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVES ( STELLAR WIND, THE FREEZING OF HISTORY ON PLANET EARTH), yet I have found a very interesting TEXT that explain how HAARP VERY LOW FREQUENCIES, IN FACT MAGNETIC FREQUENCIES, can AMPLIFY YOUR BODY AS AN ANTENNA, remember that when you touch the antenna of an FM receiver it boosts its signal.


Wellington Antonio Doninelli Pereira
porto alegre, RS Brazil - Thursday, October 04, 2012 at 08:50:55 (PDT)

Good Old Sunday Morning

September 30, 2012

Hello Sports Fans:


Electricity, that is. Let's "Download It" from the Earth/Ionosphere Cavity. That would be from the "Wheelwork of Nature" to you Tesla enthusiasts. If the Flying Saucer Folks can do it; then why not us?
Bruce M. Forrester Jr
Zephyr Technology
937 429 3847 .

Bruce M. Forrester Jr (formerly "Klark Kent")
Bellbrook, Ohio USA - Sunday, September 30, 2012 at 05:03:43 (PDT)


I suggest a credo for today?s need to drive responsibly and to minimize high density traffic ?wave? congestion:

?Every driver is responsible for the immediate driver behind them, keeping them safe and avoiding the need for sudden braking?

How This Rule Works In traffic:

1) The Rule Is Expansive and All Inclusive If we followed this general rule, we would all naturally be responsible for leaving the proper space/time ahead of us. Space clearly gives us reasonable reaction time to perhaps "brake by simply coasting" and not forcing the driver behind us to suddenly have to brake hard. It assures that braking is something one does as a "last resort" and only when no other circumstance for safety and/or avoiding a collision is available.

2) Allows Trusting The Front Driver and Eliminates Reactive Braking Keep in mind what normally happens to traffic when the first driver uses their brakes either idly or in protective response to traffic. We are conditioned to then over brake for two reasons:

a) Less Reaction Time - We have less time than the front driver to react and consequently need to over compensate by braking harder. This affect gets compounded, causing each upstream driver to brake harder until a collision or multiple collisions occur.

b) Don?t Trust Other Drivers - We are conditioned not to trust our fellow drivers because they haven?t yet been educated to abide by our Rule. This lack of trust causes us to be "overly" cautious and results in the over use of our brakes.

3) The Rule and Its Implied Driving Etiquette Are Required Learning During Driver Education The rule and its derivatives must be taught as part of our driver?s education program, with their aspects tested as part of the licensing exam. Also included must be the responsibility to adhere to a driver?s etiquette code, and not just stop at obeying basic traffic laws as was done in former DMV years. Highways are becoming too congested to allow rouge drivers to ignore their social driving responsibility and road etiquette. Tickets for abusing social driving etiquette should be as prolific and costly as our traffic laws of speeding or not stopping at a stop sign, etc..

4) The Rule is a Prelude to Using Auto-Controlled Vehicles on Congested Roadways

Just as extended use of cruise control will incrementally help future traffic ?wave congestion?, this Rule and its implications of driving etiquette will take us to the next step forward. Of course our final step forward with impending technology will eliminate drivers from the equation and rely only on auto-controlled vehicles in regions of high density traffic. Ideally this will eliminate accidents due to all the ramifications of driver shortcomings , and only allow the possibility of technological glitches to become problematic.
Herman Vogel
Danbury, CT USA - Friday, September 28, 2012 at 09:02:45 (PDT)

I love this website. I was wondering if anyone could suggest a good science journal/magazine. I'm nervous that i would find out the magazine i choose is full of myths and misconception. i wouldn't know because I'm not up to date with my knowledge past 8th grade. got delegated to the short bus :( if you know what i mean. I've been reading American Scientist, so far so good. wasn't very impressed with a article on statins though. i don't mind a journal that has a dense reading material. i like a good challenge. any area of science is interesting to me, but i do have a special place in my heart for biology.
roseburg, or USA - Sunday, September 09, 2012 at 12:24:34 (PDT)
THere is a Morris & Lee Van de graaf kit on ShopGoodwill.com up at auction, if anyone is interested


Not many people know what it is (I just happen to live near a real one)
Needham, MA USA - Friday, August 17, 2012 at 17:33:41 (PDT)

Me ! Some one from India. Really liked your site. Shall keep on visiting it for the additions you will add to it. Would like to exchange some of my thoughts with all of you, some day, till then once again salutes from me to you for this nice site. girish
girish sachdev
faridabad, haryana india - Saturday, August 04, 2012 at 06:11:25 (PDT)
So sick of being shocked, I am interested in other peoples ways of coping with this affliction.
Seattle, WA USA - Thursday, August 02, 2012 at 23:21:19 (PDT)
I'm surprised I didn't see discussion of the concept of traveling directly downwind faster than the wind here. The linked article has great examples of closed minded "educated" people declaring that something is impossible, and dismissing evidence as a hoax. I'm not sure there is any direct application, but the concepts and thinking involved to understand how this works seem likely to inspire some really useful invention some day. There's another good article is at Make magazone which includes a link to the earlier article they ran where they "debunked" the claims. http://blog.makezine.com/2010/11/04/downwind-faster-than-the-wind-black/
USA - Wednesday, August 01, 2012 at 23:15:16 (PDT)
I just read your article "WHY THREE PRONGS" and i thought it was well written with just the right amount of humor to make it a joy to read. I realize it is over 10 years old. But still, thanks for posting this :)
Paul S
GB - Saturday, June 02, 2012 at 14:53:27 (PDT)
Enjoyed your electric charge detector article. But not sure about the statement "it really takes no energy to turn off the FET". Surely the electrostatic field results in a force on the electrons, which move aside as a result. Force x distance moved = work (energy expended). The net electrostatic potential is slightly reduced as the electrons are now further away from the gate. Or am I misunderstanding this?
USA - Friday, June 01, 2012 at 04:48:32 (PDT)
*and by the way, I had to mention that my typo just seemed too apropos to go!
pdx, or USA - Sunday, May 27, 2012 at 09:36:30 (PDT)
Exciting cite.* Just "discovered" you in Natalie Algiers' hilarious '07 book THE CANON, even thought I'm pretty sure id already seen some mekmlted stuff of yours in a microwave ;+)
The Teacher Monkey
Portland (PDX), or USA - Sunday, May 27, 2012 at 09:31:20 (PDT)
My mind works in a visual fashion. This has advantages as well as disadvantages. If I can visualize what is happening in a system at the most fundamental level, I can learn "the rest" very easily, even predicting effects before I am told about them. On the other hand, if I try to learn about something without being given what I need to visualize what is going on underneath, the lesson seems arbitrary and I end up having trouble remembering it.

The lessons here seem like they were written for me. I came here in search of a better understanding of transistors and now I have one (at last!). I am now going to read every word on this website, being fairly sure that I will come out with a stronger understanding of every concept I read about here. Well done, well done, well done!
NY USA - Wednesday, May 23, 2012 at 06:53:21 (PDT)

Love the site, keep up the good work guys
Kamloops, BC CA - Wednesday, May 09, 2012 at 15:31:15 (PDT)
Hello, you have a lot of info on microwave ovens and magnetrons. I am wondering if any data exists on "smelting metals with a microwave."

some one over at open source ecology said that putting a barrier between the metal like silicone-carbide, will capture and turn the microwaves into heat that can then be transferred to the metal through convection.

if you want a link to the forum page that the statement was made, email me directly. I will send them then, until then I do not want to spam links here.
Thomas A, Anderson
Tulsa, OK USA - Sunday, April 08, 2012 at 18:48:01 (PDT)

Bill, in regards to the Ridiculously Sensitive Charge Detector (/emotor/chargdet.html), I can't get the MPF102 where I live. Do you have any recommendations for other similarly-sensitive transistors?
DE - Sunday, April 08, 2012 at 05:11:19 (PDT)
Some really cool science on your site!
Leeds, UK - Tuesday, March 27, 2012 at 03:04:32 (PDT)
Hello there! Would it be possible to get a reciprocal link with your website? We have built what we believe to be a very informative anatomy resource which is regularly updated and caters for a range of academic levels. If not no worries (though if you have the time for feedback we'd be very appreciative :)). Keep up the good work!
Manchester, UK - Wednesday, March 21, 2012 at 14:14:28 (PDT)
Dear Bill, I have a study about Lorentz law consisted of 3 paradoxes, their solutions and improvement to it. Please look at the paradoxes below and tell me what do you think. I do not know how to promote it.




France - Tuesday, March 13, 2012 at 15:50:27 (PDT)

You deserve GREAT praise for having a simple captcha security number. Much unlike Google etc with their ridiculous and barbaricly twisted words, or endless numbers. Be sure to see; Einstein's Answer Finally Unveiled ! www.EinsteinGravity.com www.EinsteinElectricity.com
Pure Logic
Los Angeles, CA USA - Saturday, March 03, 2012 at 11:21:39 (PST)
Thought you might want to try making one of these. It is like an inside-out Tesla Coil.
Fountain Giving Life
USA - Sunday, February 26, 2012 at 14:43:58 (PST)
I was force-fed so much theory and so many equations throughout my electrical engineering degree that I'd failed to fundamentally understand the meaning of some of it. Interestingly enough, I've gotten away with not understanding the meaning for the past several years. Recently I decided to build some training material for non-electrical engineers to explain some "electrical energy" concepts. I found that while I could do the math, I couldn't completely explain what was going on. The material and links on your site are helping me bridge some of the gaps inside my own head. Thank you for your time and energy and your simple yet complete way of explaining things :)
Steve K
Austin, TX USA - Wednesday, February 15, 2012 at 21:42:30 (PST)
You seem to be ones who would support efforts to get free energy "out in the open." And so I write You in the hopes that You can help in My effort to do so. If this is of interest, please pass the word along!

A petition has been started on Change.org for the US Government to release electrogravitics to the public.


Why This Is Important

My early childhood was defined by My father's excitement for His work in electrogravitics, then (1950's) being worked on openly by all major aerospace companies. My father, a CalTech graduate and one of the top electrical engineers at one of these companies, would tell Me about the successes of His experiments (gravity control and overunity (free energy)), and tell Me what the world I would grow up in would look like.

Cars would fly, cities would float, and We would have all the energy We could use.

Then, one night He came home from work late and woke Me up to tell Me We couldn't talk about the flying cars, the floating cities, the free energy anymore. "They want it secret for now."

Since My childhood, I have studied economics, coming to the conclusion (later confirmed by Jeremy Rifkin in His book, Entropy) that all money represented was meaningful energy expended. One can grasp this most easily by considering the first hunter, fisherperson, gatherer, farmer, miner. The stuff They gained/used was free: critters, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seed, sun, soil, rain, ores. It was the meaningful energy expended that gave "value" to the stuff: the killing, fishing, picking, tilling, weeding, harvesting, mining, transporting.

Add abundantly what money represents - energy - and the need for money (and the control of others it affords) in all its forms (barter, trade, work exchange, coin, bills, electronic funds...) will dissipate and what is left is free.

Add robots to do all the necessary jobs no One wants to do to free energy, and Humans will be freed to follow Their bliss - within the three Laws:

Do not willfully hurt or kill another Being

Do not willfully take or damage another Being's property

Do not willfully defraud another Being

(A Being (cap the "B") is sentient, sapient; animals are beings)

Waste would be virtually eliminated: supermarkets presently throw out hundreds of thousands of tons of food a month! Distributing by need and not profit will end this waste. Products would be made to last instead of being designed to break so as to ensure future sales. Theft-protecting packaging would be unnecessary. And so on.

Organic farming would be prized and GMO (genetically modified organisms) would be eliminated.

Motive for war will be virtually eliminated. With no profit motive for war suppliers and "infrastructure rebuilders," wars will not be instigated to ensure profits.

Poverty will not exist.

Hunger will be eliminated.

Education (at all levels) will be free for all.

Replace the work "ethic" (a slave's ethic: enrich the rich with Your Human energy) with a Betterment Ethic and the Humans who better things will be paid in appreciation, status, name-recognition and Self-satisfaction, the new "coin."

Create a central website where problems can be brought up locally and People can ?vote? to bump a problem up, down, show apathy by not voting, and chime in with solutions (which can be cheered and booed). Issues will drop off after the original poster indicates that the problem has been resolved or withdrawn, or there has been no activity after, say, six months (that is not set in stone). Social responsibility will be defined as spending 15 minutes a day examining issues on this site.

Also, issues with some set number of bumps up will be considered issues that need a wider awareness and go to regional sections. From there, continental, perhaps, and then global, as more are needed to be involved in solving the problem. Problems will beget the awareness to solve them.

Without money as a motive, problems will be solved more creatively, directly, harmoniously, and within the three Laws.

Leaders of the moment will emerge from this to solve problems as they arise.

Open-source all public works programming. This allows for many to make suggestions for betterment, and ensures that no one will create outside the three Laws. It also eliminates ?back doors,? and other surreptitious software segments that bog down the clean functioning of the program. Without money as a motive, programmers will be proud to offer Their work for scrutinization and use, openly and freely. Status will be gained for creating the best programs.

Though this will not create a utopia, it will be vastly better than what We now have, in this scarcity-defined system, on this planet.


I have found many who have said They would sign, but They fear being "put on a list." This is the very thing the power elite count on. I say... Cast away fear! Stand and be counted as One who would oppose Them. In the long run, We will overcome - IF We stop allowing fear to be used as Their weapon against Us!

So... To any who read this, ask Yourself, "Will I empower the power elite to control Me with fear?" And then give strong consideration to signing this petition.

Twitter: @AmaterasuSolar
USA - Tuesday, February 14, 2012 at 17:11:20 (PST)

I began experiencing strange unexplained phenonmena after I was struck by lightening twice some 35 years ago. electronic things frequently won't function around me.

For example. Cable boxes often won't function, Light bulbs oftenr go out, street lights blow as I drive by and the wired thing is the distance at which they blow is almost always the same. I am not doing anything consciously to have this happen. When a friend questioned me about my ability he challenged my to put a light out on the side of a restaurant. I had never really tried to consciously make a bulb go out, but this time I concentrated and sure enough it went out. Computers and cell phones I use aften don't work properly. My daughter has the same issues but not my son. Can people inheret thing phenomenon? Surely the science community has to research this strange thing
Ohio USA - Friday, January 27, 2012 at 07:44:34 (PST)

Dear Bill, I have drawn up a design for a Rossi copper pipe reactor assembly as demonstrated, using mostly standard copper capillary fittings, together with some notes and commentary to enable experimenters to reproduce the unit. Drawing is basicly Deltacad 7, can be exported as DXF. I would like to publish this material, but am scared of a storm of spam etc if I offered to send it as attachments to enquirers. Can you suggest way this could be published without creating a nuisance for myself?

Best regards Ian Macmillan
Ian Macmillan
Melbourne, Vic Australia - Tuesday, January 17, 2012 at 00:33:44 (PST)

Great Site! Very informative--thx for all your work.
John Richmond
USA - Saturday, December 31, 2011 at 19:54:37 (PST)
I just discovered this site and I have to say, I am amazed and overjoyed. I love finding interesting things like this in the unseen corners of the internet. That combined with my love for science, especially unusual science... I think I'll have to stick around here.
Brennan Lawson
Ithaca, New York USA - Sunday, December 25, 2011 at 16:46:16 (PST)
Love this site. Discovered your ramblings on poynting Vector 10 years ago. Still coming back to try and wrap my mind around VPF and ZPE concepts.Switching the dipole moment! Keep this up. Mark
milwaukee, Wisconsin USA - Wednesday, December 21, 2011 at 03:05:11 (PST)
This site has helped me clear so many doubts, thank you! I will always be a follower because i am also Hobbyist scientist
miami, fl USA - Thursday, December 15, 2011 at 19:28:04 (PST)
Hello! On your website you say:

"If we place a Potential Difference across either air or a vacuum, no electric current appears. Air and vacuum are insulators. This is sensible, since there are few movable charges in air or vacuum, so a voltage placed across them is unable to cause an electric current. If we place a voltage across a piece of metal or across a puddle of salt water, the charges present in those materials will flow, and an electric current will appear, since these substances are always full of movable charges, and therefore the "voltage pressure" causes the charges to flow."

I think you are missing one critical piece of the puzzle here. Someone could read your argument and ask, "well then, why don't the electrons that are on the metal terminals of the voltage supply (which is making the potential difference in the first place) simply jump off the terminals,
[That's just electrical breakdown, a vacuum-arc. Easy to produce if voltage is high enough. But any vacuum that's full of electrons ...isn't a vacuum. (You're right, I don't go into details of *why* insulators are insulating, how is diamond electrically very different than plastic, etc.) -billb]
sail through the vacuum, and reach the other side? The reason this doesn't happen is that any electrons are bound to the metal... and WHY are they bound to the conductor? Ultimately it's the protons of course... But one could then say, well LOOK, if the negative terminal has a net overall negative charge then won't the effect of the protons be somehow canceled out by the the effect of the electrons? the answer lies in electrostatic induction. As soon as an electron leaves the metal it induces a positive charge LOCALLY (think image theory)... the force due to this induced positive charge is much STRONGER than the force due to all the electrons in the metal simply because the induced positive charge is closer... Hence an electron can't simply jump across the terminals of a battery. If one does than it induces a positive charge which sucks it back in.

Portland, OR USA - Monday, December 12, 2011 at 10:21:33 (PST)

would like to join the giant team of electrical engineers world wide.some one touch my dream
nrb, kenya - Sunday, December 11, 2011 at 08:10:36 (PST)
Thank you Bill. After 48 years of not understanding electricity, I finally found someone who explained it in plain english.
gene williams
kansas city, mo USA - Wednesday, November 30, 2011 at 20:02:14 (PST)
Hi,Working very hard to learn electronics with my son. I did learn alot from reading your articles. Is there a site or program that just illustrates/simulates the electronic components only. I need to be able to visually see the electrons,the holes and the depletion zone thinning! Please tell me where I can find this! Thank you for your help!
Lubbock, TX USA - Tuesday, November 29, 2011 at 00:39:36 (PST)
Hi, I'm a primary school teacher in Germany, really impressed with the simple electric generator although I'm yet to make it work for myself. It's probably down to the parts I'm using. Might have to order the exact ones you listed on the site. I'm determined to make it work!!!
Berlin, Germany - Tuesday, November 08, 2011 at 10:57:42 (PST)
I ran across this page by chance...I am one of those people who, for whatever reason, sucks the life out of electronic devices. : ( I just sent off my new macbook pro for the second time in four months to get a new logic board, and the backup computer has started freaking out on me since I started using it more regularly this week.

This has happened all of my life. I burn through laptops, hard drives, etc like a forest fire. I actually understand computers very well (I am a web dev) and I do nothing that I shouldn't but I can't seem to work on them for any significant length of time without somehow overwhelming them. This also applies to watches, which I cannot wear, and small electronics.

Do you suggest that I wear some kind of metal bracelet to ground myself while I work on my computer? I have spent a small fortune on computers and computer repairs, and I have to figure out something.

Seattle, WA USA - Thursday, October 20, 2011 at 20:06:26 (PDT)

Puzzled about what I saw. In brief:(10:30pm good weather, mid-summer, 2002) At a point 150' south from my location standing outside and 35'above the ground I caught site of a glowing soccer ball sized slowly falling light sphere comprised of a gold grapefruit sized center surrounded by shells of different colors approx 7 colors-(each color was glowing vivid pastel in nature) in all that made up the total physical size of the sphere..(My view of the sphere was akin to slicing the sphere in half and seeing it as a cross section even though it was a round ball) The sphere was dropping a steady stream of gold sparks straight down at a free-fall rate to the ground. The sphere fell slowly to the ground in an arced trajectory and then vanished as it contacted the ground. The total time of this event I witnessed was 3-4 seconds. It took the sphere 3-4 seconds to descend from a height of 35' till it reached the ground. ?Note- 35? was the estimated height at which I first caught sight of the sphere as I had just exited my house, so it may have been falling from a greater height? ? Sphere made no perceivable noise; location of contact with the ground was an open grass field. I went to the spot the sphere had hit the ground and found no sign of disturbance in any way. I would be most interested to know if this type event has ever been reported or explained. Thank You - Russ Fleenor Age 47 Westfield, Indiana russfleenor@yahoo.com
Russell Fleenor
Westfield, IN USA - Saturday, October 15, 2011 at 13:05:39 (PDT)
Hi there, just to let you know I took a little info from your site for my blog post today called "Becoming an Inventor" and have linked to your site. I hope you don't mind. Here is the post link http://randomeshelter.blogspot.com/2011/10/becoming-inventor.html
USA - Monday, October 10, 2011 at 12:49:40 (PDT)
I enjoyed the quotes at http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/weird/skepquot.html . Thanks for sharing that. Regarding the quote attributed to Herbert Spencer, FYI Wikiquote attributes the quote to William Paley. See https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikiquote/en/wiki/William_Paley
USA - Saturday, October 08, 2011 at 08:49:29 (PDT)
Japan - Wednesday, October 05, 2011 at 18:50:15 (PDT)
I have created Science Niblets, a science web page. It explains science in everyday life. It could be interesting for you. www.science-niblets.org
Elmar Bergeler
Austin, TX USA - Monday, October 03, 2011 at 10:37:53 (PDT)
I do have a question. How big is space? Seriously, there is all this talk about the universe, its size, whether it is expanding, etc. But what about the supposed void that everything banged into. How big is that?
Houston, TX USA - Wednesday, September 28, 2011 at 21:01:30 (PDT)
Hi there. I have a very exciting opportunity for your club to participate in a worldwide forensic science challenge. Registration begins soon as teams are forming to compete for 6 weeks in January. I would love to be able to offer this to your members as well as offer myself as a personal mentor available via email, as I reside in California. Below is more information on the program, designed and sponsored by Forensic Outreach. The cost is $16 per student, very reasonable, and includes a team of mentors and judges, such as myself.
Please don?t hesitate to contact me for more information. My cell is 707-360-5632. Venessa Silveira Director of Forensic Training/ Forensic DNA Expert

Welcome to the FOGO CSI Competition
Sign up to become part of a worldwide science challenge and win prizes for your school.

Form your team and register
Form your school team with ten members or more. Your team can be members of your school STEM or science club. Register on our website as a team for only ?10 per member, and begin the challenge on the week of January 16th, 2012. Download the six week challenge Each week for six weeks, teachers have free access to a forensic science-themed lesson plan, worksheets, and challenge questions. Teachers have until midnight GMT on Friday each week to submit their team's answers to the challenge questions online. Win amazing prizes for your school.
Compete against schools across the world to get the most right answers in total -- and earn fantastic prizes if your team wins! Until then, watch our online leaderboard each week to see how well your team is doing and if you're likely to place.
Why we're doing this
The importance of our challenge. For the past decade, Forensic Outreach has successfully developed and facilitated outreach programmes based on principles of forensic science in schools across the UK and Europe.
This competition is intended to encourage students (or aspiring scientists!) around the world to learn more about the discipline in a format that is engaging, innovative and rewarding.
1. Why should my school participate?
2. How do I enroll?
3. Tell me a little more about how this works.
4. How is the competition scored?
5. What are the prizes?

Venessa Silveira
Director of Forensic Training/ Forensic DNA Expert

Venessa Silveira
Hidden Valley Lake, CA USA - Tuesday, September 27, 2011 at 11:27:00 (PDT)

I don't know how I came to stumble upon your site. What is the first 1 that really has outlined things that happen to me electrically. Some of the stories resonate well but things that happen to me are major compared to the Other people

I have a video of me that was taken of me because of weirdness that was going on in the room and I'm happy to forward. Just need an email address to send it to.
kevin bisch
Alameda , CA USA - Sunday, September 25, 2011 at 15:34:10 (PDT)

Thank you so much for putting up this site! You explain things in clear and plain language. Because of your articles, I finally understood 2 puzzles I had: Which way does electricity flow in a circuit? and Why does a plug have different sizes for the hot and neutral prongs if the electrons moves back and forth in both?
NY, NY USA - Tuesday, September 20, 2011 at 14:11:13 (PDT)
Hi, I'm very interested in electronics, and especially finding analogies for electric components and behaviour into being physical things that we can see and touch..(plumbing is awesome) So when I saw the capacitor water analogy my head exploded cause it was the exact same thing I've been dreaming up before I saw the pictures (only mine was square shaped ;)) However, I've also pondered about a possible improvement that can show the phaseshifting behaviour of caps; Imagine instead of having one rubber membrane, have two, and between them there's a compressable substance, say air or something. This means that when you run AC through it, there's going to be a delay(the air compresses) before the electrons are being pushed out the other end, thus introducing a phaseshift on the wave, get it? :) I'd love to hear your comments on this. Now I shall keep reading I've just started to understand the actual difference on AC and DC, after reading 'the speed of electricity'
Vasa, Finland - Saturday, September 17, 2011 at 05:28:58 (PDT)
I saw a ring and tin can generator a few decades ago at an Electronics Show. It had 20 or 30 neon bulbs in series that flashed a couple of times a second. No need for expensive high ohmage resistors.
Phillip J Stevko
Euclid, OH USA - Friday, August 26, 2011 at 16:12:55 (PDT)
Just read your section on; 'how transistors really work' Seriously, great stuff. Regards from Australia
Australia - Friday, August 26, 2011 at 07:02:22 (PDT)
You have a great site with a great forum. Will register soon. Its great to get informatione for your projects!
Berlin, Berlin Germany - Tuesday, August 09, 2011 at 01:22:57 (PDT)
I've been trying to research on my own what was going on with me & it just may be what you talked about in your article "Mother & Daughter in Mass. Detect Signals Through Walls." I don't "hear" the signals, but I "feel" them like waves in my brain (nowhere else). I feel them when TVs/computers are 1st turned on (but then I get "used" to it) & certain radio stations as long as I don't turn the station (when I turn it, it instantly goes away). I feel when my neighbors/strangers turn on their TVs, whether in a house or apartment or walking, riding by & I can definitely sense it in the same house even when I'm in another room or another part of a house (upstairs, basement, etc.) I even feel like a huge TV has been turned on sometimes when I'm driving on long trips & I don't even see a home, building, etc., just open space. Signals on antennae TVs get clearer when I touch it, but unlike your subject, it doesn't make me sick nor does my daughter show any signs of that happening to her. I grew up in west Alabama/Cleveland, OH, and I don't think I was near any facility like the one mentioned in the article. Are those plasma coil or sphere things in TVs, computers, radios? I'm seeking more answers than anything--thanks.
Nashville, TN USA - Tuesday, July 26, 2011 at 14:31:57 (PDT)
hi i am interested in an opinion.i have been reading about healing with electrostatics.there is a site called ***-******* that uses static electricity produced electronically rather than rubbing of materials together i think they use 18000 volts and claim healing from many different maladies if they originate from the fifth dimension.there is also a device i think it was called an electrostatic saber or wand where the add shows him rubbing some thing in and out of a tube.it sells for 60 dollars the first one sells for 1200 dollars.has any body ever tried any of these products?
john ferendino
new port richey, fl USA - Thursday, July 07, 2011 at 12:10:07 (PDT)
HELP!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I understood the transistor action(p.d. between base and emitter acts like a gate and voltage applied to collector acts like a suction which sucks-up all electrons) but now have a few doubts about the "Common" Emitter and "Common" Base. What do you mean by "grounding" or connecting to a common terminal? How does one common terminal control the current between two regions? What is the main difference between the "Common" emitter and "Common" Base(in both the configurations base-emitter is forward biased and collector-base is reverse biased)? HELP!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
USA - Sunday, June 26, 2011 at 19:54:43 (PDT)
You once made a comment about it being essential for the rubber bands of the Rubber Band Engine/Motor being stretched really tight for the engine to work well. Could I please have a link to that comment. Thank you, Best Regards Frank Grimer
Francis Grimer
HARROW, greater london UK - Thursday, June 23, 2011 at 22:23:15 (PDT)
I really like the "what is electricity?" common misconceptions pages. Me and some friends started the Olympia Tesla Society and we're building a Radiant Energy transceiver based on Edwin Gray's tube. Maybe some time we'll all come up to Seattle for Weird Science Salon! :)
Sean Logan
Olympia, WA USA - Wednesday, June 15, 2011 at 11:40:31 (PDT)
Hello,I?m still learning ! Greetings from Germany.Your site was recommended to me by Mr.Wong
dj m?chen
augsburg, by germany - Tuesday, June 14, 2011 at 07:17:57 (PDT)
The article at /amateur/elecdir.html was excellent and it helped me a lot. Thank you.
mysore, karnataka india - Wednesday, June 08, 2011 at 08:24:29 (PDT)
Dear Dr. Beaty, I am writting to you from Ukraine(Kyiv). I am starting up a biochemistry company and wanted to collaborate with you. Something that might be of your interest is new advanced technology from Soviet Uninion era that are healthbenefiting and becoming commercially available, ocource mind challenging. Our website is underdevelopment right now, in a week we will open. Sincerely, Yuriy Yakubtsov McS Biochemistry (obtained at the UofOttawa, Canada)
Yuriy Yakubtsov
Kiev, K Ukraine - Sunday, May 29, 2011 at 02:57:41 (PDT)
Hi Bill, Thank you for your article explaining the facts behind the pseudo flow of "conventional charge". I felt a pain in my brain when encountering only a + and a ground on a circuit until reading your explanation.
Llanelli, UK - Saturday, May 21, 2011 at 15:53:34 (PDT)
i want to make a magnetic electricity generator. please can you help me out ?
jalna, maharashtra india - Sunday, May 08, 2011 at 05:13:01 (PDT)
Hi; I would like to find out where to sign up for the WSCI-Announce list? I see it mentioned in the mad scientist list from time to time. Lots of goodies on your site, still poring through it all, thanks and enjoy!
Mark Willis
Bellevue, WA USA - Wednesday, May 04, 2011 at 00:02:36 (PDT)
I am very pleased to have found your site. I was looking for directions to perform Newton's experiment supposedly using two prisms to recombine dispersed light back to white light. In my effects the two prisms seem to prove the exact opposite of what the experiment was meant to show. My preliminary effects using a magnifying glass worked better. I intend to make a number of real set ups that actually demonstrate the principle that that white light is made up of the spectrum colored light that actually works. I will photograph these and place them on a new page on my web site. I also enjoyed your discussion about your philosophy on science. I think that science is magical, fun, and beautiful. I have created science toys and kits focussed more on the discovery and the art of science. My goal is to stimulate a sense of joy and adventure in science using things that marvel, bring out the asking of questions, and the impulse to say "let me try that" and I wonder if.."
Pamela Saha
Brooklyn, NY USA - Sunday, May 01, 2011 at 08:18:10 (PDT)
Great site, congratulations.
Warszawa, Poland Poland - Saturday, April 30, 2011 at 01:37:57 (PDT)
Bill, I really appreciate you adding my link to your site, however can you please change the text from "APTO" to "free websites". Also I run 2-3 science related website and I would like to link to your site if that is okay with you. Thank you for your time, Tom
Wilmington, NC USA - Monday, April 25, 2011 at 13:15:22 (PDT)
I think that the sundog destruction by the SDO rocket launch is the same has sundog distortions by electric fields in thunderclouds. Robert Greenler and Les Cowley found a new halo created by it and determined that the arc of light was formed by gyrating crystals. ( http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2011/11feb_sundogmystery/ ) The electric fields also disorientating ice crystals on your website are likely causing the same arcs of light as this.
Nick Beck
Jacksonville, Fl USA - Friday, April 22, 2011 at 14:23:35 (PDT)
hi , why i can't find any other site on the web talking about SPACE WARP I by Charles R. Morton 115 Summer Sun, Colby Kansas 67701 weird isn't it ? is it because it is completly fool ? i also couldn't find any topic when searched for Charles R. Morton in google ?!!!!!!! i hope you have agood explaination and send it to my email ljlojmsdjjhdjd,yahoo,com
lili jo
ads, dsas USA - Sunday, March 27, 2011 at 12:33:43 (PDT)
I enjoy being a member of Sci Hobbyist Forum !
Turkey Property
St Paul, MD USA - Friday, March 18, 2011 at 02:23:32 (PDT)
I am a small UK businessman with very limited knowledge of electronics and have a problem with a pcb and am worried I may be ripped off, If anyone can offer help I would be very appreciable. I have a conveyor roller labelling machine, there are three principal components; the main body roller conveyor, labelling head and a smaller wrap around conveyor. The conveyor components are each controlled by an individual subject board. One of these boards has ceased to work. Having compared the resistance across the primary coil with remaining working board, It is suspected that the fault lies with the transformer The boards are Durag DS152 Am50-10, the machine was purchased in 1995 and am I informed discontinued in 2007. What would you suggest in this situation. Is the board repairable? Clive Perry
Clive Perry
Caernarfon, UK - Tuesday, March 15, 2011 at 02:18:47 (PDT)
Hi Bill, I agree somewhat with the last entry. Things are a lot simpler than we can imagine, but has nothing to do with religion. We have perfected and built a 48KW 380 volt "self energising" electricity generator. We ask for nothing more than for you or anybody else to test it in any way you wish, for as long as you wish, without asking "how" it works. All I can tell the World ......... It works.
Louis Visser
Boksburg, Gauteng South Africa - Thursday, March 10, 2011 at 05:54:55 (PST)
I just watched the video on how to stop traffic jams, and I must say it's probably the dumbest idea I've heard of. Traffic jams are caused by bottlenecking, where you have more flow down same path causing back pressure. your 'leave a large space in front of you' theory is flawed in that not everyone can do it because there is simply not enough space on the roads. By slowing down you're only causing a lower net speed through traffic, I guess if you have nowhere to go fast it may work for you, but on the other hand I guess I would be glad to jump in that space in front of you and get around your slow @$$.
Gill Frisam
USA - Wednesday, March 09, 2011 at 08:47:48 (PST)
i really liked the video on the generation of electricity using magnets copper and card board... i wasnt sure if it was oscillating or not...i am embarking on taking a fan motor out of a fan to make an oscillating tibetan prayer wheel lamp that will project images on the wall. i am fairly sure this is a simple task for you to accomplish...was curious if you are planning to a how to video in the near future for something of that nature...how to use the fan motor from a fan to oscillate a lamp ...there are other methods involving using the heat from a bulb to generate the movement of the lamp i also searched the internet pretty thoroughly, as to where i could purchase these motors or bases my self but i havent had any luck there has got to be a better way ??? have searched also on how to make the gears to turn the motor im sure it is so simple a kid could do it...im just not looking in the right place maybe just maybe you are the right one!
DeAnna Neri
rehoboth beach, de USA - Monday, February 28, 2011 at 11:23:59 (PST)
I am an aircraft electrician in the USAF. I have been quite good at troubleshooting and fixing electrical malfunctions for years but I am finnaly "getting it" thanks to this website. I'm better at my job and can explain(or at least attempt to)the why and how, where as, befor i just knew I could fix it. THANK YOU!
Adam Post
Nashville, TN USA - Wednesday, February 23, 2011 at 06:41:23 (PST)
I am a tour bus driver and consider myself to be a good driver. Leaving a distance in front of me is something I practice on the highway, counting - one thousand one, one thousand two - etc... and while I have never noticed that it improved traffic, I did feel safer especially when it came to a sudden stop. My comment wants to address city driving and especially stopping and starting at a traffic light. I always make sure that I see the road in the space between the wheels of the car or truck in front of me. I have discovered that when the light turns green and that car starts to move, I can move in unison and observed that without fail the cars that followed me stayed at a stand still for several more seconds because they were stopped too close to me and did not feel safe moving right away. I, not being quite able to do the calculations necessary to prove my theory, would love to know if the distance left between stopped cars would not improve the speed with which left turning cars could clear the turn lane thereby eliminating the temptation to keep turning even though the light or arrow no longer gives them the right of way.
Carmelle Jasenovic
Hermitage, TN, t USA - Tuesday, February 22, 2011 at 19:23:47 (PST)
I made the Ultra simple Electric Generator and it worked as well, but I need urgent help with something. The magnets I placed inside the box keep slipping off when I spin the nail, and I have tried everything to fix them, but nothing works. I taped them together and tried other things, but they still slip off. I don't know what to do,because when they slip off and don't spin the bulb doesn't light. This is for a science fair project which is due soon and I need your help urgently. Can you please tell me what to do, so they don't slip off and spin like yours do. Please write back asap. Thank You Very Much
Bronx , NY USA - Sunday, February 20, 2011 at 11:38:55 (PST)
Bill, enjoyed your article on how transistors really work. It was both informative and entertaining. One suggestion though. Adding the sentence, "For example in a radio, transistors act as amplifiers for the electric signal when radio waves are converted to electrical impulses.", would have been the cherry on top the cake! Good job! Tommy
Thomas E. Shenk
Catonsville, MD USA - Saturday, February 19, 2011 at 06:17:00 (PST)
Hey, you have a really awesome blog here. I've been into science since I was a little kid.
Fresno, CA USA - Friday, February 18, 2011 at 14:36:45 (PST)
Excellent article on the direction of electric current flow. After some discussion with the rest of the faculty, I expect we will share it with our basic electronics students. Well done.
Erich Cosby
USA - Wednesday, February 16, 2011 at 09:13:06 (PST)
I guess I am not the only one having all the enjoyment here! Keep up the good work..
purwokerto, central java indonesia - Tuesday, February 15, 2011 at 06:39:59 (PST)
great site for science students.. I procrastinate alot and never seem Thanx admin..
samarinda, east kalimantan indonesia - Tuesday, February 15, 2011 at 06:35:20 (PST)
A new book provides an explanation that Ball Lightning is an Electron Spiral Toroid Spheromak, a new discovery. This book also reports the first known observation of Ball Lightning while it is forming. The book describes clean energy technology that will be possible based on this explanation. This has the potential to replace gasoline with clean fuel that has 100,000 times more energy per kilogram than gasoline. Experiments and analysis supporting the explanation are described that explain why it is self-stable in atmosphere and needs no external magnetic field for containment. Included as appendices are confirming technical papers co-authored by consulting scientists. The book also describes the breakthrough achieved in 2010 to enable scale up of the results and to enable applications. This book is written for engineers and others interested in finding clean energy alternatives to energy sources in use today. You can link to a website that further describes the book at Http://www.lulu.com/content/10117874 Please note that all proceeds from sales of the book will be applied to further the development of the technology and its clean energy applications. Clint Seward, Author
clint seward
acton, ma USA - Monday, February 14, 2011 at 11:56:41 (PST)
I just wanted to thank you for making and maintaining this web site. It has been a valuable resource for building and troubleshooting a Van De Graaff generator for my son's 6th grade science fair.
Mishawaka, IN USA - Wednesday, February 09, 2011 at 04:32:48 (PST)
Thank you for this great page!!! http://amasci.com/elect/elefaq1.html

I'm a technical sales person moving to a new company where I really need to understand the details of electrical circuitry in a way I never have before. I've been listening to college podcasts, buying hobby kits, and generally just trying to get myself up to speed. This page has been one of the most useful resources I've found, and cleared up so many things I was finding confusing as I got information from different sources. Thank you, really, for making it.
Jennifer E
USA - Saturday, February 05, 2011 at 17:02:07 (PST)

Just wanted to send a huge thanks your way for making this site! I am taking my first course in electronics right now and I've felt completly overwhelmed, but after browsing your site I'm finally getting the hang of the fundamental concepts. Thanks!
- Thursday, February 03, 2011 at 18:46:01 (PST)
thank you
Sinop Rehberi
turkey, tr turkey - Tuesday, February 01, 2011 at 23:07:59 (PST)
Thanks for the tour through the transistor. As a technician it was an expediency to skip the why when in school. When I'd say a magnetic lines of force "cut" conductors my father in law would come "unglued." He's gone now, but, yes thanks for the critical thinking Keith and Bill.
Roger Monroe
Clearlake, WA USA - Monday, January 31, 2011 at 22:22:51 (PST)
I'm trying to subscribe to Vortex-l but my email keeps getting bounced (vortex-l-request@eskimo.com ) subject line: subscribe
Dan Granett
Berkeley, ca USA - Monday, January 31, 2011 at 08:47:49 (PST)
I was able to get the "ultra simple generator" to work and I used all the exact parts listed. The trickiest part is getting the magnets to perfectly set around the nail without sliding and becoming unbalanced. I tried the cardboard spacer and tape but it still slid around. Does anyone have any suggestions on how to improve this?
Largo, FL USA - Sunday, January 30, 2011 at 09:04:04 (PST)
Re: traffic waves Without having read your site before today, I have been doing a variant of this at a designed bottleneck. Except I do it straddling the white line, visibly cutting into the lane that is ending. Bad idea? Sending a new eddy a few hundred yards behind me? Or secret hero?
USA - Friday, January 21, 2011 at 15:30:34 (PST)
hi, i love the ridiculously simple charge detector but i would like to know how to light the led when negatives are present. It was suggested the a p-type jfet is used but no specific part number was given. Also p-types are almost unavailable here in oz. are there any other suggestions or, can the mpf102 b reversed somehow? thank you
aus - Thursday, January 13, 2011 at 18:30:01 (PST)
Hey ^_^ i was wondering if you could make a tutorial on how to make the simple generator with the glass and sewer pipe and stuff. I have a phys project to do and I want to show up with something awesome and not cardboard although the cardboard worked out really nicely as a prototype for my phyz teacher to be impressed.
Kristen Lo
USA - Wednesday, January 12, 2011 at 15:14:58 (PST)
huhu, uu USA - Tuesday, January 11, 2011 at 19:00:57 (PST)
Keep up that good work! There's a lot of interesting tips I was looking for... But I'm not sure exactly why but this site is loading extremely slow for me. Is anyone else having this issue or is it a problem on my end? I'll check back later on and see if the problem still exists. I'm at work browsing your site from my new iphone... maybe thats the reason:))
Joseph Kieffer
Montgomery, Al USA - Tuesday, January 11, 2011 at 08:07:39 (PST)
I have made the near Infared Goggles to your specifications but when i add the primary red gel the image thati see is completly red. Do you have any Ideas?
Property Turkey For Sale
southville, va USA - Tuesday, January 11, 2011 at 04:55:43 (PST)
My 18 year old son was studying for his exams and we were discussing lasers and could not between us understand how they were coherent, collimated and monochromatic even after reading the text books (and wikipedia etc). Your article on lasers explained it - why don't the text books explain this rather than trying to make it simple (and not understandable because its wrong)? Thanks for this - you should compile your work into a text book that goes alongside the syllabuses (of all countries), excellent.
Roy Manning
London, UK - Sunday, January 09, 2011 at 11:27:36 (PST)
bill bush
moville, iowa USA - Saturday, January 08, 2011 at 11:10:18 (PST)
I looked you up several times Bill, using you as a referendum for my thoughts. You have some really good explanations, and I was highly entertained by your FAQ:). that is, I agree.. I hope you will continue to work on it, it will be fun to see where it takes you.. Take care & have fun. Yoron
Sweden, USA - Wednesday, January 05, 2011 at 15:50:09 (PST)
Great site - thanks a lot - it's great to be able to get such in-depth explanations to stuff you take for granted in everyday life. Keep up the great work!
Boris Capitanu
Urbana, IL USA - Tuesday, January 04, 2011 at 16:02:28 (PST)

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