And don't miss the
WEB FORUM (BBS) for ongoing hobbyist
Has anyone downloaded the entire Amateur Scientist Handbook?
Campbell, CA USA - Tuesday, December 27, 2005 at 22:00:39 (PST)
I periodically enjoy visiting your site. I ran across a footnote in an old book from the 1950's that might interest you. It's intriguing but rather vague on the specifics which would be interesting to discover and replicate for fun and/or profit:
Associated Press: "The eminent French chemist, M. Georges Claude, [a.k.a.
the father of the neon] performed "miracles" at Fontainebleau in 1928
through his demonstrations of oxygen transformations. The Associated Press
reported that M. Claude, at a scientific gathering, 'turned a handful of
sand into precious stones, iron into a state resembling melted chocolate,
and, after depriving flowers of their tints, turned them to the
consistency of glass.'"
Hi Bill (and everyone),
Wow - that's a lot of great links on your site. I wanted to let everyone know about my free Tesla coil design program at my new website www.teslamapcom
Please feel free to
check my site, and if you deem it worthy, maybe you could do me the favor
of adding a link from your website.
Your hydraulic capacitor analogy is very well done. Would it be possible to extend it? For instance, electrical capacitance can't be analogous to just the volume of your sphere, since the flexible divider could be anywhere from balloon-thin to immovably thick and stiff. But capacitance can't be analogous to just divider stiffness, because a larger divider would always allow more hydraulic capacity. Can't be just divider area, either, at least after the divider gets pressed against the far wall... Maybe the hydraulic analogy just can't be taken that far?
What I'm looking for is an analog to the perceived "stiffness" of an audio amp power supply - a concept that approaches superstition in the electrical realm. Personally I've given up on capacitors for that purpose - there is no capacitor remotely as "stiff" as a bank of car batteries!
Philo, CA USA - Sunday, December 18, 2005 at 14:50:45 (PST)
If you drive at a steady slow speed you will use less fuel than stopping, accelerating and running at higher speeds. I think it will cost less to run your car if you leave breaking spaces.
Dr Peter Cage
Birmingham, UK - Saturday, December 17, 2005 at 04:29:27 (PST)
Just to let you know, you little pop bottle electrostatic motor fried my 27" tv. Please pass this information on to to your web page viewers.[The warning on TV set as power supply isn't clear?!! Someone already reported that it killed their TV set. I can change it -billb]
asheboro, nc USA - Saturday, December 10, 2005 at 12:53:52 (PST)
I am an Instrumentation engineer from India. Its been 2 years I passed out of college, but could never understand how a transistor worked. Basic queries never got solved and I never wanted to just summarise the mathematical equations to satisfy myself. I was too scared of Electronics, since everything was built from transistor, about which i had no clue. No good books, be it Millman, could sove my queries. Your article today has created an interest in learning electronics and getting a hang of this subject. I have recommended this site to everyone. Thanks a lot.
Bangalore, Karnataka India - Monday, December 05, 2005 at 10:32:37 (PST)
My son used my 37" JVC TV to generate an electrostatic motor. Now the TV powers on and quickly goes off. I have to unplug it to turn off the ticking. Can anyone tell me how to save my television? PLEASE!!!!! Please email me at debbielynn.at.frontiernet.net or dlaphotos yahoocom Thank you
Elk Grove, CA USA - Sunday, December 04, 2005 at 23:55:28 (PST)
I know you said no advertising, but this is a non-commercial (educational) site, and I do think you would find it interesting ... however if you absolutely will not tolerate any advertising of other sites then just ignore this message. :P
The website is www.larryspringcom and it details the findings of Larry Spring in areas such as physics, electromagnetism and quantum mechanics. The site also features Flash visualizations of Larry's discoveries such as magnespheres and the Spring atom.
I find the visualizations and information presented to be very educational, and it is all 100% free, without advertising, no membership required, etc. etc.
I hope you'll enjoy the site as much as I have. Thanks for your time,
Seattle, WA USA - Saturday, December 03, 2005 at 19:04:41 (PST)
For the first time in 30 years of tinkering with electronics, I FINALLY understand what the third prong is for! I'm trying to debug a vexing house wiring problem and this article was the one thing I've been able to do find that actually reduced my frustration level. Thank you so much! (Re: Why Three Prongs -- http://amasci.com/amateur/whygnd.html)
Seattle, WA USA - Friday, December 02, 2005 at 19:34:09 (PST)
I miss Carl Sagan. If he were still alive, what would he be doing now?
Bend, Or USA - Tuesday, November 29, 2005 at 20:40:11 (PST)
Bill: Your summary of wing theories is very good. One comment though: The link for Gale Craig dead ends. I have a fairly extensive page at Regenpresscom
I hope you read this and change the link. Thank you and best wishes.
Anderson, IN USA - Tuesday, November 29, 2005 at 11:45:27 (PST)
I am doing a project on a maglev train and I am extremely close to experimentation. I have all of the parts but I was wonderig if you know of a cheap, inexpensive way to measure the ohms for the LSM hall effect circuit IC (SS41). An e-mail reply from just about anyone would work as well, of course. My e-mail address is Crai%ghead%J.at.rvgs.k1%2.v%a.u%s (remove %s as per warning)
USA - Monday, November 28, 2005 at 18:26:49 (PST)
So now were suspose to want Big Brother to add yet another "Wonder Box" to force compliance rather than educate car drivers to a fact known and used by big rig drivers for half a century? Ahhh Bill, Am I expecting to much?
USA - Sunday, November 27, 2005 at 17:33:17 (PST)
i would like to tell you i done a test with a machine one time with cold current and yielded 4 small energys balls and i think it ties in to M-theory i can post or send a e-mail to you about this with many plans and drawings i have around 1000s of them , i work in a small R&D lab of my own and have been working with magnetics for around 30 years , and i have talking and working with a few others like john hutchison in the past so if you may know who or how to get some of this new stuff out i would work with you in doing so.. Thanks
Brian D. Prater
Cavetronics R&D Energy Labs
P.S. My E-mail is posted already
Brian D. Prater
Salem, mo USA - Sunday, November 20, 2005 at 22:58:08 (PST)
Professor Petar Bosnic Petrus
Langova 35, 10430 Samobor,
You are free to reduce and transform this article into the form suitable to publishing the in your magazineas antigravitation)
petar bosnic petrus
Samobor, Croatia Croatia - Sunday, November 20, 2005 at 12:06:04 (PST)
NY, I have been going to this site since third grade. i am in 9th grade. As an amature scientist, I really enjoy reading these articles. i with though I had the neccessary funds to afford the material to do many of the more advanced (and some non-advanced) projects. I hope to one day create tesla coils, wich I learned about years ago through this website.
USA - Monday, November 14, 2005 at 19:03:47 (PST)
The section of your website on electricity and especially transistors and capacitors is excellent. I always had a hard time understanding how transistors work and your explaination is the best I seen anywhere. Please post an explanation on how diodes work as well. I'm the kind of guy who likes to know how everthing works down to the subatomic level. :)
Also holes are just spaces where electrons used to be or are they empty spaces in the electron cloud of the atom or both? ['Holes' are actally semiconductor atoms which have one less electron than proton, so they're positively charged. But a neighboring atom can donate one if its outer electrons to the "hole" atom. The hole vanishes, but now the neighbor becomes positively charged, because one of its protons now lacs an electron. "Holes" are like wandering protons. But in fact, the positively charged proton is only "revealed" when one of that atoms' electrons is missing. As the hole moves around, it reveals an un-cancelled proton in the semiconductor atom where the hole is located. -billb]
Pittsburgh, PA USA - Monday, November 14, 2005 at 10:12:32 (PST)
To whom it may concern:
The so-called transformation of carbon into steel, carbon into oxygen, sodium into potassium and even the dubious tranmutation of mercury into gold all seem to either require, or at the very least, all have the presence of oxygen in common.
I found the following references in the footnotes of a book from a book published in the 50's. Curiously in subsequent editions, these two references are conspicuously absent:
1--Associated Press, 1928, Fontainebleau, France:
"The eminent French chemist, M. Georges Claude, performed miracles at Fontainebleau in 1928 through his demonstrations of oxygen transformations. The Associated Press reported that M. Claude, at a scientific gathering, "turned a handful of sand into precious stones, iron into a state resembling melted chocolate, and, after depriving flowers of their tints, turned them to the consistency of glass."
There is practically nothing on the web about this man, except for his work with neon and fluorescent lighting. "Oxygen Transformation" with his name yields nothing insofar as I am able to research. A little digging at the local library repeated the above; and that he was unfairly accused of being a collaborator, imprisoned, but then released due to his wealth of friends who lobbied upon his behalf. He also had some theories about harnessing sea water temperature differentials.
2--Charles Kellogg, the California naturalist (source unclear), gave a demonstration of the effect of tonal vibration on fire in 1926 before a group of New York firemen. "Passing a bow, like an enlarged violin bow, swiftly across an aluminum tuning fork, he produced a screech like intense radio static. Instantly the yellow gas flame, two feet high, leaping inside a hollow glass tube, subsided to a height of six inches and became a a sputtering blue flare. Another attempt with the bow, and another screech of vibration extinguished it."
Even Encarta acknowledges the illusary dual nature of matter; that it is actually all energy. Thus even matter has both frequency and amplitude like all forms of energy. If one could ascertain and reproduce those two with something that could approximate it, what effect would that have on matter? Could one store and reproduce such frequencies similarly to how one would with sound, radio or light waves? Would it be a coil/capicitor arrangment perhaps so fine that it would have to be designed with nanotechnology, or are there crystals out there, that could resonate to the appropriate frequences if properly stimulated?
If you can find the particulars for the replication of those two aforementioned citations, I would be particularly interested.
MN USA - Saturday, November 12, 2005 at 07:15:51 (PST)
Regarding you "HIGH-AMPERE MAGNETISM DEMONSTRATION".
1) Do I need to have a 3 foot diameter of wire or will something smaller work?
2) How would I measure the current being generated?
*pgendr*on*.at.*co*x.net* (remove the 6 asterisks '*')
Lincoln, RI USA - Thursday, November 10, 2005 at 17:45:38 (PST)
hi im am tring to get your permission to do your reaserch as a science project is that okay
orangeburg, sc USA - Tuesday, November 08, 2005 at 15:49:24 (PST)
Hey there...thanks alot for the help we got...i got to learn how elkectricty and current definitions are bad!....whoo hoo...go sicence....go my favorite physics teacher...Paul Bartkovsky!...aka Mrs. B!!..Riverside High School.
A very good site and up to date. Excellent !
uk, uk uk - Tuesday, November 08, 2005 at 12:55:51 (PST)
we have our very own science club in england!we were so proud to see your website!keep up the good work!
meg and stace
UK - Sunday, November 06, 2005 at 06:47:40 (PST)
Hi my name is Jessica and I have not found a we bite as throughly intersilng and intrigiuing as yours!
Jacksonville, NC USA - Friday, November 04, 2005 at 14:51:55 (PST)
Your Vebsite is very good, for my science studies i would highly reccomend you to all of my english friends!
Das Ist Gut!
Munich, Germany - Thursday, November 03, 2005 at 13:26:56 (PST)
< I really have passion for math and physics , but unfortunately the environment around me doesnt support the idea of being ingenious , imagination and make discover. I want to have a career in space , but nobody seems to understand my passion , my parents think its just a teenage craze and i will overcome it later. This frustrates me . I know i am capable of doing things , inventing things coz i know i have the potential, but the environment doesnt allow such a thing to breathe and its suppressing my feeling , i am desperate for some help.
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia - Sunday, October 30, 2005 at 02:00:17 (PST)
Magnetic softeners -- Authentic repeatable tests done by SA University
See Water SA Journal -- Archive 1993 -- Issue 3 [July]
London [ West], UK - Saturday, October 29, 2005 at 15:30:20 (PDT)
Hello, I read your explanation of how current moves quite slowly, of the order of cm per second. How is it that information such as phone conversations can travel in wires at much higher speeds ? Is it that the waves of energy travel fast, but the medium (analagous with water waves) travels slowly ?[Exactly. If you pull on a chain, the links move slowly, but the *wave* moves down the chain very fast. -billb] Thanks. Jan
Auckland, New Zealand - Monday, October 24, 2005 at 03:47:05 (PDT)
Hello Bill! I stumbled upon your page while reading about plasma globes, and have spent an evening reading many of the pages. I was particularly intrigued by your "electric humans" page. I've always been particularly sensitive to electricity, shocking myself easily and being bothered by a TV on several floors below.
Recently I had an usual experience that you might be interested in hearing about. I work as a Geologist for an environental company, and running over our large parking lot is a set of high-tension wires. We recently had two weeks of steady rain, and on the aftenoon the rain was finally letting up I was leaving work. As I walked through the parking lot I could hear the high-tension lines making their typical "sizzling" noise they make during rainstorms. I suddenly felt a pulling, prickling pain in the side of my face. I touched my face, feeling nothing there, and assumed there was a sharp edge on my umbrella that was scraping me. Soon afterwards I felt it again, and when I leant forward to fish my keys out of my bag I felt a sharp prickling pain in the top of my head. I jerked my hand away from the handle of the umbrella and dropped it on the ground. I realized that the umbrella was picking up a strong charge from the air, and I was getting really zapped.
It is possible that the high humidity combined with the cheap metal of the umbrella contributed to this event? My boyfriend mentions to me that he's heard that you can light a flourecent bulb by standing under high-tension lines, and now I am curious as to whether you have heard of any other instances of metal objects become charged while under high-tension lines (if that is actually what really happened to my umbrella.)
Thanks so much, and keep up the good work on the site!
Rock Nerd in the Northeast,
Medford, MA USA - Sunday, October 23, 2005 at 19:18:03 (PDT)
you alrady know my name but i have experanced these strange phenomanoms like the other day i was pissed at my dad so i decided to take a walk.i went around the block and there is only one street light, right as i passed under it flickered and then shut off. i was in in total shock i never told this to anyone befor
29 palms, california USA - Thursday, October 20, 2005 at 07:54:38 (PDT)
I wanted to thank you for putting the time and dedication into building this site. It's like a one stop shop for Science resources! I hope Domino's will deliver to my office because that will be the only way I get to eat for a few days with all these links available to explore!!!
aka Professor Brainius
Wild and Wacky Science for Kids
Dallas, TX USA - Wednesday, October 19, 2005 at 09:29:01 (PDT)
If I want to use some of your information in my report, how would I cite you webpage?
USA - Sunday, October 16, 2005 at 20:49:03 (PDT)
I strongly support your efforts to level the playing field that is otherwise so tilted against new ideas. Please see the "Theory of the Red Blood Cells" at the above Website. Among other things, the red blood cells match 19 criteria for the animal magnetoreceptor. Also, please visit www.scientiapresscom/findings/mailer.htm ("Was Abderraouf Jdey the Anthrax Mailer?" FBI is now offering up to $5 million for information on Mr. Jdey.).
Kenneth J. Dillon
Washington, D.C. USA - Friday, October 14, 2005 at 18:14:34 (PDT)
When I saw http://web.mitedu/2.009/www/lectures/10_ArchimedesResult.html I remembered the idea being mentioned in your 'Kindergarten Solar-powered Death Squad', on http://www.amasci.com/hoax.html
N. Highlands, Ca USA - Thursday, October 13, 2005 at 08:23:01 (PDT)
To go with your Kindergarten Solar-powered Death Squad, check out a group at MIT who tried it: http://web.mitedu/2.009/www/lectures/10_ArchimedesResult.html
Atlanta, GA USA - Thursday, October 13, 2005 at 06:31:07 (PDT)
< Great website! Thank you for gathering these resources together in one place for us!
I teach kids the fun side of learning thru hands on experiments and interactive science shows here in the North Texas area.
Scott Logan aka Professor Brainius
Dallas / Fort Worth, TX USA - Monday, October 10, 2005 at 23:19:53 (PDT)
I liked your site very much. I am placing link to it on my site right now.
Nis, Serbia - Thursday, October 06, 2005 at 15:57:18 (PDT)
I seldom look at websites as I have done with yours. The information on transistors http://amasci.com/amateur/transis.html was excellent. More often than not, teachers and students really do not understand the concepts just the results, and I have seen this on several occasions. Perhaps the Babylonians were right all along. Lets convey the concepts first and then link them to the mathematical solutions, What an IDEA!!. An article on an inductor and rectifier would be nice. Anyway, keep the great work.
Montpelier, VT USA - Sunday, October 02, 2005 at 07:10:47 (PDT)
http://amasci.com/traf/ I came to some of the same conclusions (though without trying to figure out why!), simply because my car gets MUCH better gas mileage when I drive a steady pace. Also, less wear & tear on the car, and reduced mental stress on me.
Ever since I was kid (in the early 70's), I have been riding a track bicycle (long before the bike messengers made it cool); with only 1 gear, no coasting, and most importantly -- no brake -- I became quite obvious that maintaining a steady pace was most efficient.
Thanks for creating a great website!
bratenahl, oh USA - Friday, September 30, 2005 at 09:42:44 (PDT)
I just wanted to thank you on your comments regarding FPD, Flaming Personality Disorder. I stumbled accross this web sight, while doing a search for pathological lying. The information was excellent, very informative, and gave me the tools deal.
My ex-boyfriend has FPD. I broke up with him this past Monday. I broke the promise to myself to not get into any heated discussion, and to just break it off.
In the beginning, I did just that, and just said, "this relationship is just too intense" but as he calmy made accusations as to why, (its another man, isn't it, blah blah) I told him the truth.
"No, its not another man, its your lying" He started to breath really really hard, and he said he had to go, and hung up. Typical. Also typical, is that he denies reacting this way.
I call him back, left a message, explaining, "case in point, here we go, this is what you do. And regarding the lying, you dont have to defend yourself. I beleive that you beleive you words.
With this, he calls back. I guess he got ready for his telling his side. And here is how you deal with a Flamer. You just dont respond.
He called me back with all sorts of projections, of my lying, when I did this and when I did that, blah blah blah, but I just ignored it and said.
I beleive you. I believe that you beleive everything you say. And since you are unaware of your own contradictions, and you are not even conscious of your own actions, well then, there is nothing left to talk about. We are at an impasse. Which is good, again, he got distracted, and rushed off the phone, saying he had a client. He didn't.
I now, block all his emails, and reprogrammed my phones, for when his calls come in, or a blocked call, it gets routed to the fax machine.
So that is how you shut down a flamer. let them disappear, when they run out of arguments. Thats a good sign, that means you've won. And then ignore them at all costs going forward.
Our history is this. He usually admits I am right, after some time has passed. Then, the same type of behavior will erupt over something else. But this time, when he comes around, I will not be here. I am glad I saw the argument through to the end, and did not let him tell me, his fabricated reasons for the break up. If I let that happen, then, in his mind, he still has an in.
[Hi Tania! Rather than Pathological Lying, this sounds more like the mental stuff called "Borderline Personality Disorder" or BPD. Did you also feel like you were going crazy, or that YOU were the crazy one? BPD people subtly devalue and marginalize any honest information and insights in order to conceal their problem, and to impose their world view on loved ones. Marriage councillors call this the "crazy making" technique, also "gaslighting." Some BPD people may constantly lie and distort, but also they seem totally unaware that they're doing this. For more info on BPD, see other BPD symptoms. There are also many online support groups for spouses of BPD people, and stories from their loved ones. Good books are Stop Walking on Eggshells and I Hate You, Don't Leave Me. -billb] USA - Friday, September 30, 2005 at 06:13:46 (PDT)
Muito bom o site! Tem me ajudado muito!
SP BRA - Thursday, September 29, 2005 at 12:56:25 (PDT)
Hi I'm a healer:
I call the paranormal event miracle healing. I have been practicing and researching the healing for the past 12 years and still can't figure it out. The healing has been successful for 9 out of 10 people with chronic pain, nerve damage. Some say you have the power, the gift, Md say feel the heat, energy healing and so on, I just don't know the answer.
Joseph D. Krovich
Camp Hill, PA USA - Thursday, September 29, 2005 at 12:50:43 (PDT)
I wrote to AMASCI several months ago and tonite haven't seen my comments. Perhaps my experiment is TOO dangerous to tell others? I'm an older person who ain't crazy for rap music, but notice not me, but others who get a migraine headache from the very low THUD sound those automobile "BOOMERS" make. Now, i'm a sound engineer & i been doing some personal experimentation with that low thud sound with some speakers moving golf balls and objects. I rig the wires to a makeshift radar antenna and directed the soundwaves to the leaves on a tree and the leaves fell to the ground. I tryed it on a bird and the bird fell to the ground DEAD. I aimed it at a stray cat and the cat took off like lightning. Cat never came back. I tryed amplifying it but not too much for fear of burning the transitors and the finals in the circuit board and pointed it at a grocery bag. The bag started to move a few inches and went up in FLAMES. Freak the bejesus out of me. What in Gods name did i create here??? Please post this comment for others to read. I think i stumbled onto something but don't know exactly what i created. I'm using the frequencies in the same range of the LOW thud sound one hears from the "rap music" coming from teenagers boom box in their cars.. Robt
Hydesville, CA USA - Monday, September 26, 2005 at 22:03:40 (PDT)
It's about time the uk got it's own maglev system.
Considering Eric Laithwaite was early pioneer.
london, uk uk - Monday, September 26, 2005 at 03:09:11 (PDT)
I am making a science project for school and I stumbled across the "ULTRA-SIMPLE HOVERCRAFT can lift several adults!" project. I believe this will work, but I'm only 12 and need help from my dad. He says he won't do it unless someone says that this is actually possible, so if anyone had made this, please write!!! my email is gamer070893****.at.aolcom (take away the *'s), you can send something there and I'll be saved.
[ There are many links to photos of hovercrafts that people have built and websites about their projects, some with videos. I've just added more links. This project originally came from The Physics Teacher magazine 1989, see Human Hockey Puck -billb]
Miami, FL USA - Thursday, September 22, 2005 at 17:45:36 (PDT)
How are you? I'm studying Human Anatomy at the University today. I saw your sites on the link list at the Girl Genius Yahoo group. Have a nice day.
Michael William Andersen
SLC, UT USA - Sunday, September 18, 2005 at 14:46:24 (PDT)
The Gravity Capicitor does work! Check out this link with video!
[Eh, that's a poor test. High voltage applied to sharp-edged foil will create electric wind thrust, just like those "lifter" devices. For a fair test, the sharp foil edges must be embedded in solid wax or plastic. Or perhaps just enclose the whole thing in a metallized plastic shield-bag. If the thrust then decreases greatly, this shows how much of it was caused by ion wind thrust. -billb]
VA BEACH, VA USA - Friday, September 16, 2005 at 14:50:47 (PDT)
I thought you might like to see this recently granted patent I stumbled over in my weekly trawl for daft patents . . .
I e-mailed a few science mags at the time, but no-one seemed interested in the fact that the patent office has effectively granted a patent on a perpetual motion machine ( or at least the energy source for one )
What do you think ?
london, UK - Friday, September 16, 2005 at 07:28:38 (PDT)
The present scientific world is based upon order or at least the ability to verify experiments but if idiot savants exist and I believe (not proved)they do, then our world cannot exist as we feel, believe, assume. etc does exist. This body seems to be the nothing from which everything springs and yet it is nothing.
Prince Rupert, BC Canada - Thursday, September 15, 2005 at 16:44:39 (PDT)
Bill, you have been a tremendous influence in my development. It's been a pleasure reading your work over the years. Thank you!
Miami Beach, FL USA - Sunday, September 11, 2005 at 19:55:30 (PDT)
Unfortunately, Katarina, it's all wrong.
Very wrong. Bill doesn't know what he is talking about.
[Prove your assertion, don't just use meaningless bad-mouthing. You don't point out even a single error in my article? Also, why do you remain anonymous, rather than using your real name? And why do you also sent me private email full of personal insults, and containing threats, rather than just posting it here? These are NOT the actions of a person of integrity. -billb]
Brussels, Belgium - Saturday, September 10, 2005 at 13:47:17 (PDT)
Nice site. But your 'how a bipolar transistor works' is wrong from the the beginning till the end. Better not read it. [Why should anyone believe anything that comes from anonymous people? If my article is so bad, you could construct a devastating argument by simply listing the worst errors. It's very telling that you don't do this, but you instead use derogatory emotional language. And you claim privately to be an electrical engineer. I certainly doubt that! Let's see some proof. School and year of degree. (As expected, I received no response to my email messages.) -billb]
Brussels, Belgium - Saturday, September 10, 2005 at 13:16:10 (PDT)
Sir,I visited ur site a few days ago and I must say its very different from other information sites.You really make concepts easier to understand.I really appreciate ur gesture. I had a silly question to ask.
I never really understood the motion of electrons in an ac
wave.now in a dc wave(well not wave exactly) charges flow in one
direction,but what happens in ac wave? moreover a capacitor provides very
high resistance to dc,but acts like a short in case of ac.
why direction of current in any circuit is always towards ground.(the
ground is generally the negative terminal of the battery ,but if there are
more than one power supplies,than the most negative one is considered as
I would really appreciate if u could clarify these
my email ID is manali_bhutiyani hotmail
Any Idea where I can order some science project materials. I stay
outside USA. Also, I am making Flash games/movies - and like to have ideas
from you on science (especially those in your weird pages) related Flash
games.[Lists of science project suppliers are linked
on my projects page, or go to
Msia - Saturday, September 03, 2005 at 23:37:32 (PDT)
I have just finished reading the above page and found it fascinating as well as destroying some of the warnings of doom that abound, in particular the superheating of water.
I had noticed that the superheating rarely occurred when I was using older mugs, eg with a few worn spots to heat my instant coffee. I have found that by tapping lightly on the base of the mug with the spoon will bit by bit "exhaust" the superheating effect. Also, none of the warnings say how fierce this effect can be - I would lose over half the contents of the mug if I ws not careful. It was only chance I was not holding it at the time.
This may not be th appropriate place for my next question which is a "Why is this so" type.
About 25 years ago, in a large department store which had a very large display of microwaves for sale, I noticed that all the doors were hinged on the left side (as you face it) with the control panel down the right hand side. Out of curiosity, I have been looking ever since for a door opening the other way. So far, I have seen ONE(1) with a lift up door and even that had the controls on the right hand side.
Is this a limitation or restriction cause by the construction and/or operation of the micro-wave generator?
I have put this question to several science type forums but had not yet had a serious reply. I realise it is not very important but I am a curious sod and keep hoping
[ I bet they're designed for right-handers. Most people would carry a bowl or plate in their left hand, then use their right hand to punch in the numbers. If the door opened the other way, it would block the keyboard. If correct, then a left-handers' microwave oven would have the door opening the other way, and have the keyboard on the other side. -billb]
Darwin, Australia - Friday, September 02, 2005 at 21:29:52 (PDT)
Great resource, I arrived from google after searching for anti-gravity resources, and spent some time surfing!
Have you seen a Magazine in the states called New Scientist? I don't know if it is out in the states, but it's big over here...as big as you get being a science magazine ;)
That have a great section called "the last word" I won't put the URL in case you think I'm a spammer... but it's:
http://www DOT newscientist DOT com/lastword.ns
Keep up the good work!
Richard. (web designer)
Maidstone, Kent UK - Thursday, September 01, 2005 at 05:51:16 (PDT)
Greatest site! :o)
What I liked the most: Weird Research, Anomalous Physics!
In germany we have very few info on stuff like this and only one tv-channel that gives a programm once in a while...
So, thanks again and keep the cool site alive! :o)
University of Bremen/Germany
Bremen, BE Germany - Thursday, September 01, 2005 at 04:50:50 (PDT)
What an unbelievably fascinating, well-written site! I stumbled on this when a friend asked me if the shock she received from a 120V wire could've killed her, and I got totally sucked into the FAQ. Great work.
Needham, ma USA - Thursday, August 25, 2005 at 22:26:17 (PDT)
I want to sent a remarkable example of modern quote! .T....
One Salad diet For Me, Dr.Atkins For Mankind.(10w.) .T.... (Greenback(one dollar) means diet and money) .T.... (Tribute to Neil Armstrong).T....(US-Pilot) .T.... by Ralf Ratenberg(respectfully quoted) .T.... (Comment for Reality: Say Saladdiet read Dr.Atkins)
New York, New York USA - Tuesday, August 23, 2005 at 04:37:00 (PDT)
Check out this web site.
USA - Saturday, August 13, 2005 at 12:17:35 (PDT)
Sir or Madam,
I would like to draw your attention to a recently published web page,
http://www.geocitiescom/joeiii63 which shows that varying
the inertial mass (read as the apparent mass) in a closed system will
produce the exact same result that would occur if the strength of the
gravitational field affecting it was alternated between weak and strong.
H. Joseph Schiess III
Orlando, FL USA - Wednesday, August 03, 2005 at 11:05:55 (PDT)
I saw your "bogglers" explanation of why ariplane wings generate lift in Discover magazine, and hope you never design an airplane to carry you. Your explanation of lift goes against 100 years of flight experience and airfoil design. [ LOL. Should we trust you, or should we trust NASA who agrees with me, and an increasing number of aerodynamicists who see the light. See the several news articles about the controversy at Airfoil Misconception: links Also check out links to Drs. Anderson and Eberhardt's page, J. Denker's page SEE HOW IT FLYS, Jeff Raskin's page on Coanda effect, and Dr. Klaus Weltner's papers that lit the fire. -billb] An airfoil flies upside down by flying at a greatly increased angle of attack, thereby making the air on top follow an even longer path than the air going underneath the wing. [Ah, you believe in the "longer path fallacy," an error which is specifically debunked at NASA's flight education page. Wings fly because the air moving over the top is faster, NOT because the air moving over the top takes a longer path. Is this confusing? Yes, but only if you've bought into the incorrect explanations found in most grade-school textbooks and pilot training manuals. Wrong explanations are like a disease. The size of this infestation is stunning. Be careful: science is not determined by voting, and if one small voice points out "and yet it moves," that voice can defeat the combined voices of thousands of known authorities if those authorities are wrong. -billb] The downward deflection of air only provides lift within a few feet of the ground, hence it's aviation name of "ground effect". [You've got it backwards. A wing in ground effect DOESN'T deflect air downwards, instead the upwash and downwash are equal, and only tiny wake effects are produced. Most textbooks wrongly describe a two-dimensional airfoil in a 2D wind tunnel where the wing is always in ground effect no matter the altitude. Only during higher flight of three-dimensional wings does the wing begin to produce a significant vortex wake which entrains descending air, where the upwash before the wing is small compared to the downwash behind. In ground-effect the wing interacts directly with the Earth, behaving somewhat as a half-venturi. In high level flight the wing doesn't interact with the earth, but instead interacts with the air. It deflects huge masses of air downwards. -billb] The vast majority of lift is caused by the air going over the top of wing creating a vacumn on the top. [ True. That effect is part of both the Bernoulli and the Newton explanations. Those explanations are correct, it's the "longer path explanation" which is wrong. -billb] If you don't believe this come fly with me and watch the upper skin deflect upward between it's fasteners to the ribs on the top of the wing in flight. You might want to do a little more "research in airfoils and flight before answering such questions.
Zion, IL USA - Monday, August 01, 2005 at 18:25:21 (PDT)
Hey there...thanks alot for the help we got...i got to learn how elkectricty and current definitions are bad!....whoo hoo...go sicence....go my favorite physics teacher...Paul Bartkovsky!...aka Mrs. B!!..Riverside High School
Moosic(Scranton), PA USA - Wednesday, May 25, 2005 at 09:01:01 (PDT)
love your thoughts. I found my own solution to the puzzel. I moved to the mtns
Creston, nc USA - Monday, May 23, 2005 at 19:04:18 (PDT)
Hi, Very interesting discussion on your website. I see from the pictures that the air does not meet back at the trailing edge of an airfoil. The upper curved part of the air, in fact, obtains greater speed and "beats" the underneath air. So, I am confused how this "disproves Bernoulli." [ Who says that this disproves Bernoulli? Seriously. Where on my website do I say that Bernoulli is wrong or needs "disproving?" Have you been reading some other website? As I clearly state on the grade-school misconception page, the Newton explanation and the Bernoulli explanation are equivalent. They are two ways to describe a complicated phenomenon. You need to say which article you're talking about. Perhaps you're reading articles on some other website rather than mine? -billb] He says faster air has less pressure, right? And the curved, upper air isss faster...
Jacksonville, FL USA - Thursday, May 19, 2005 at 11:25:36 (PDT)
My husband's presence around certain types of equipment causes many problems. Computers and cell phones "act up" or crash whenever he is near them. Strange things happen to these types of equipment, like LCD screens being upside down or backwards or blanked out completely. Cell phones dial incorrectly and computers don't follow the commands correctly. Computers crash and lose saved information. Too many other strange things to mention but you get the idea! Any suggestions on how to harness or block whatever his body is emitting??!! [All my info is on the page about Doorknob sparks and electric humans -billb]
Waterford, WI USA - Thursday, July 28, 2005 at 11:36:35 (PDT)
Here's an oldie but a goodie:
This is right up there with the "non-tox" Malathion chugging demonstration which I've heard has been done by some of our more "progressive" professors.
We need more mainstream science like this . . .
marcus *-at-* colisp *-dot-* commercial
Area, 51 USA - Wednesday, July 27, 2005 at 08:57:07 (PDT)
Hi- I am in the SF Bay area and have recently been diagnosed with high electrolytes. I am a practising psychic and have often had "issues" with electrical equipment, esp. recording equipment and computers. Have you ever heard of any correlation between high electrolytes and psychic ability.?? I understand that you need to replenish electrolytes after psychic work which I have never done (probably never needed to). I have the sense I shouldn't mess with trying to lower electrolytes as it may be "normal" for me.
Any info is appreciated. There's very little out there on this.
San Jose, CA USA - Friday, July 22, 2005 at 09:41:41 (PDT)
Love the site.
Just one thing, the bit about leaving coins at a level where children can find is a cute idea. But aren't coins a real choking hazord for little kids?
[ GOOD POINT! The coins are only worth something to kids above a certain age: kids who know what coins are, and who won't stick them in their mouths. Obviously we should only put them in non-babyproof areas where other swallow-able objects are already present, and where bored 6yr olds would explore. Never leave coins in a babyproofed home, or where lots of toddlers are around. -billb]
Sloatsburg, NY USA - Thursday, July 21, 2005 at 13:26:59 (PDT)
Why with all of the experimenting being done by many extremely competent individuals that no useful power that can run motors or power lights been have been produced.
It would be wonderful to be able to build some of the marvelous equipment and it be a source of useable power. I
would like to power a set of pumps and lights for a greenhouse complex but how do you get power from a Tesla Coil or one of the other power Induction devices. I would like to build it myself. The Tesla Turbine would seem to be one of the most usable for power generation and pumping. [See my FAQ about free energy devices -billb]
Judsonia, AR USA - Wednesday, July 20, 2005 at 16:34:53 (PDT)
This just might prove to be the long awaited true "Unification Theory!" The paper titled "The Three Elements" is published on the following site: nuphysics4ucom CHECK IT OUT!
Eastanollee, Ga USA - Friday, July 15, 2005 at 17:43:14 (PDT)
I just wanted to say 'thanks for existing'. Here I am, in Novi Sad, Serbia, amased by your generosity to give others your knowlidge. Actually, i've just enrolled in electronics faculty and i must admit not understanding tranzistors, well that is until I've read this article.
(if you like you can send me an email on yahoo - my name's in the data base there)
Novi Sad, Serbia & Montenegro - Wednesday, July 13, 2005 at 13:22:00 (PDT)
Add ball-bearings to the axle assembly of the wonder wheel!
Good luck in your work.
NY, NY USA - Tuesday, July 12, 2005 at 04:39:58 (PDT)
Hola Bill soy Raul desde Argentina. Soy un coiler desde hace mucho tiempo ya. Te quiero felicitar por tu pagina web ya que gracias a ella logre contruir mi primera bobina de tesla, en esta pagina tienes mucha informacion util. Muchas gracias.
raulcb400f hotmail com:::
Cosquin, cordoba Argetina - Monday, July 11, 2005 at 10:23:17 (PDT)
Can anyone help? I have a very enthusiastic 9 year old son who is mad keen on science, engineering and technology. He has no interest in most things his classmates like but instead devours books on how things work from morning to night. I am hopeless on the subject and have to refer him to his grandfather for any intelligent conversation on the subject!
However, I am having difficulty trying to find any kind of science club in the UK for kids / teenagers that he can get involved in - does anyone know of anything suitable in the UK or even any other websites I can try?
philipmg.humphreys virgin net
Marlborough, Wiltshire England - Sunday, July 10, 2005 at 03:29:51 (PDT)
For science projects related to Solar Energy your visitors may be interested in http://www.makeitsolar.com/
Thanks for the wealth of information you provide!
Southborough, MA USA - Monday, July 04, 2005 at 07:15:33 (PDT)
I was curious if anybody has tried to conduct the Edward Leedskalnin magnetic experiments. Do the experiments he wrote about actually work?
VA, LA USA - Wednesday, June 29, 2005 at 16:26:34 (PDT)
Hello Great site, I would like to invite All You TESLA fans to view my Nikola Tesla Tribute Video/song.
here is the link for those interested:
thanks wonderfull site.
Reseda, CA USA - Tuesday, June 28, 2005 at 12:08:36 (PDT)
I like this site, thanks!
USA - Tuesday, June 28, 2005 at 10:29:09 (PDT)
Newmarket, UK - Saturday, June 25, 2005 at 08:30:16 (PDT)
Really appreciate your content, yes; the presenation is retro-cool - Ive always valued content over gloss/spin.
(I apologise for being a citizen of a country with a spinmeister for presi. sorry prime minister/crap slinger.)
UK - Tuesday, June 21, 2005 at 13:30:59 (PDT)
Brilliant Bill! Glad to know that you are there!! Keep it up!
Perth , WA Australia - Sunday, June 19, 2005 at 03:49:28 (PDT)
i've been trying to explain traffic wave theory to my boyfriend for years but was unable to articulate it properly. now i'm just going to take bits of this and show it to him. thanks
USA - Thursday, June 16, 2005 at 05:27:42 (PDT)
I need help! I am trying to find materials that, if worn, will minimize the effects of static/imbalanced electricity. I am doing some research about the relationship of static electricity and animals. Your comments/direction is greatly appreciated. Thanks!
saratoga springs, ny USA - Wednesday, June 15, 2005 at 19:46:44 (PDT)
Are there any highschool or college students or anyone who is just smart in phsyics, engineering, and science in general who would be interested in helping me design and build an antrigravity starship? I would require that you agree not to discuss the research of design with anyone outside our design and build group however. I can be reached at surf_lightning hotmail com
USA - Wednesday, June 15, 2005 at 07:36:05 (PDT)
stuff.html is freaking brilliant. Or perhaps feeping brilliant, but that's beside the point- my engineering knowledge is essentially limited to such a point that I am unable to follow the crackpot theories.
On the other hand, if you haven't already, I might reccomend picking up "Science and Health" by Mary Baker Eddy. It's the fundamental text for Christian Science, and it's nuts and wrong- but true nonetheless. Like many religions, it presents good material and then proceeds to draw exactly the opposite conclusion introspective sanity or healthy madness might suggest. It's also probably safe to skip the first few chapters. Few deliberately left undefined.
Ever checked out the Principia ( http://principiadiscordia.com/ ), the Jargon File ( ) or Organelle ( http://www.catb.org/~esr/jargon/ http://www.organelle.org/ )? I offer these deliberately without commentary, as they are all things which are simultaneously full of crap and beauty.
Although I guess I'm a tad out of place here. What else is new?
PA USA - Wednesday, June 15, 2005 at 00:53:02 (PDT)
I really appreciate the numerous science articles you've written, as well as the links! Question, though: I can't find your fascinating article about UV, IR, & X-Ray waves and their differences, which I saw only the other day -- help, would like to use it to teach kids about light.
Thanks in advance,
Washington, D.C. USA - Tuesday, June 14, 2005 at 17:25:34 (PDT)
Thank you! this is just what I need for my electronics GCSE - the pieces on how Transistors and Capacitors REALLY work are brilliantly written and explain things perfectly! thank you so much!
Cambridge, UK - Saturday, June 11, 2005 at 15:10:46 (PDT)
for those of you interested in magLEV trains, i suspect that Halbach arrays will also be of interest:
and to Bill i have only gratitude, for helping me better understand electricity, and for the hours of edutainment i had in the process :-)
Copenhagen, Denmark - Friday, June 10, 2005 at 07:06:54 (PDT)
Bill you have a Nice Website with many Links.
Bangalore, Kar India - Thursday, June 09, 2005 at 14:01:30 (PDT)
Add ball-bearings to the axle assembly of the wonder wheel.
NH USA - Monday, June 06, 2005 at 10:09:19 (PDT)
My house has been humming since august 04 when the kinder-morgan gas company added two new compressors to the trans-colorado pipeline. It can easily be heard 40 miles to the north and 20 miles to the south of my house(thats millions of acres).Local officials won't help, probably because our county makes about 13 million dollars from pipeline leases.State legislators,EPA, no one will help.If they can get away with this in my county, how many other countys across the country are they preying upon. With so many billions of dollars at stake, how many government agencys have been bought out? Officials from kinder-morgan with all there expertice,experience,monitering equipment,and money have only this to say" I don't hear nuthin". Are we suposed to believe they aren't bold face liars and that they are really that incompetent? We are being sold out. Thousands of people are effected in my county alone, all so one company can make more money. What's next?
cortez, colo USA - Monday, June 06, 2005 at 07:29:03 (PDT)
I have an e- buddy who says it is possable to bend space with a toroidal coil.
Who has a large toroidal coil and a laser?
Will you run an experiment for me and post the results?
respond to johntaylor at hotmail dot com
Canada - Sunday, June 05, 2005 at 18:46:44 (PDT)
Hi! We have a almost a dozen free articles on making handmade paper, including helpful instruction on getting started and more advanced topics for older children. The web site was started by me and my Mom, Mary Reimer, who used papermaking as part of her language arts curriculum as an elementary teacher. Making homemade paper is fun for all ages, from 5 years old and up. So we invite you to check out the web site and download as many articles as you'd like! Sincerely, Heidi Reimer-Epp
Winnipeg, MB Canada - Thursday, June 02, 2005 at 11:21:47 (PDT)
This would seem to be a simple question but there of course are a lot of very particular details that would have to be worked out. Using a relatively new technology, let us say bluetooth for now, couldn't a chip be installed in a car that lets cars surrounding each other communicate so that these so that traffic jams are almost eliminated. Of course, besides the technical aspects of this, what do you think the major social problems be. I vote for control.
Annapolis, MD USA - Thursday, June 02, 2005 at 10:59:42 (PDT)
I like the "old school"-design!
Mark (Rechtsanwalt Offenbach)
Offenbach, Germany - Wednesday, June 01, 2005 at 16:58:42 (PDT)
Hey there...thanks alot for the help we got...i got to learn how elkectricty and current definitions are bad!....whoo hoo...go sicence....go my favorite physics teacher...Paul Bartkovsky!...aka Mrs. B!!..Riverside High School
Moosic(Scranton), PA USA - Wednesday, May 25, 2005 at 09:01:01 (PDT)
love your thoughts. I found my own solution to the puzzel. I moved to the mtns
Creston, nc USA - Monday, May 23, 2005 at 19:04:18 (PDT)
Hi, Very interesting discussion on your website. I see from the pictures that the air does not meet back at the trailing edge of an airfoil. The upper curved part of the air, in fact, obtains greater speed and "beats" the underneath air. So, I am confused how this "disproves Bernoulli." [No, it's me who's confused... Where did I say that this disproves Bernoulli? If I said such a thing anywhere on my website, please point it out. When I read my article, I notice that in several different places I clearly state that Bernoulli explains flight (and so does Newton, of course.) The only thing that's disproved is the "wing shape explanation." But this was disproved long ago. Aerodynamics experts have been complaining about the grade-school wing-shape misconception for many decades. Lifting force is created by circulation; by the air deflected by the trailing edge. Go see the NASA GRC website for a thorough debunking of "wing shape explanation." Unfortunately the misconception was taught to many pilots, and now those pilots would rather die than admit to not understanding their own aircraft. -billb] He says faster air has less pressure, right? And the curved, upper air isss faster...
Jacksonville, FL USA - Thursday, May 19, 2005 at 11:25:36 (PDT)
I am a 4th grader in Milwaukee Wisconsin and wuld like to thank you for helping me with my science project. sincerely yours, Brendafaye Guster
milw, wi USA - Wednesday, May 18, 2005 at 10:29:34 (PDT)
I've heard that triangular antigravity flyers don't work in a vacuum. A doctor of physics put a 'flyer' in a vacuum chamber which was at normal atmospheric pressure and the flyer worked but when the air pressure was reduced to that of the same level as 100km above the earth the flyer didn't work. The physicist said therefore they must be generating a ion wind. Have you heard of such research? What do you think about it? [ Yes, I've been saying this all along. Lifters are an obvious ripoff of deSeversky's Ionocraft from 1964, and they're only weird if you have no knowledge of that old device. See the first link on my antigrav webpage! See my comments on Naudin's 2001 Lifters page. They obviously produce a huge amount of ion-wind thrust. But do they also create antigrav effects? Well, only if they can produce thrust under high-vacuum conditions, only then are they interesting. Now we have evidence that they can't. Therefore, they're just ion wind devices. -billb]
London, N/A UK - Monday, May 16, 2005 at 15:40:50 (PDT)
This website is not as cool as your title suggests! More bright colours!!!!
Boston, NY USA - Wednesday, May 11, 2005 at 06:18:29 (PDT)
Great site! I made the IR goggles, and they are possibly the coolest thing I have ever seen. I'm making them for all my friends. I do have a question I hope someone can answer for me though: I want to build a tesla coil, but the prospect of winding all the wire for the interruptor/spark gap assembly is daunting. Is there a commercially-produced part I can buy instead, or does anyone have any extra ones lying around that they'd be willing to barter/sell me? Thanks! [Heh. Tesla coils are dangerous... and the way to promote safety is to prevent kids from building them. Most kids don't have the patience to wind the main coil. This is a psychological safety feature! Kids who do wind it are probably obsessive nerds like me, and they're too smart to electrocute themselves. -billb]
San Diego, CA USA - Tuesday, May 10, 2005 at 16:38:23 (PDT)
This is a note to see if you are interested in some free equipment. My husband was planning to build a tesla coil and accumulated power supplies, wire, shelves of god-knows-what. He died recently. Anyone who is interested in the stuff can call me 360-668-0723. [it's all sold now, but she has a tour bus and a trailer for sale]
Kay Van Dyke
Snohomish, WA USA - Monday, May 09, 2005 at 20:10:28 (PDT)
Hey, I want to make a huge electro-magnet, I'm sure there are questions of why, but you'll have to ask later. I want to make a HUGE amount of amps. I'm talking 10,000 if possible. What I need to know is, where could I get high-amp wires, can't just go down to wal-mart and get them. Also, I need to know about what kind of power I'll need to be running through this thing, I am willing to pay a load for this, so don't leave the monetary value out of the answer, thanks. You can reach me at HJ*ones*873.at.*hot*mailcom --- remove the * I hate spammers
Dickson, Tennessee USA - Friday, May 06, 2005 at 21:09:12 (PDT)
Hi - My son recently received a Digiscope DS-150 with Motic software as a B-day gift. The quality of the picture to the monitor screen is excellent and it also works very well strictly as a microscope. I am a trustee of our school district board and am trying to find a place to purchase more of these for our schools (we have 3 K-8 schools in our district). Currently I have been having little to no luck searching the internet. I can find info on them, but no sources as to where I can purchase more of them. Do you have any ideas? Thank you so much for your help. shuelsen at yahoo dot com
[ I found them by searching google: http://www.google.com/search?&q=%2Bdigiscope+%2Bprice+%2Bmotic -billb]
Silver Peak, NV USA - Wednesday, May 04, 2005 at 13:34:52 (PDT)
Why a plug on an electrical device has two prongs. (Of course, some plugs have three prongs, but all plugs have at least two.) [Go check out my Electricity FAQ, under the parts about two wires and one wire. -billb]
Islamabad, Pakistan - Tuesday, May 03, 2005 at 15:17:31 (PDT)
I was curious if anybody has tried to conduct the Edward Leedskalnin magnetic experiments. Do the experiments he wrote about actually work? If so, where may I find literature on the experiments? My e-mail for this topic is science.experiments.at.gmailcom
rock hill, holland, holopaw, many USA - Friday, April 29, 2005 at 22:40:20 (PDT)
Here's a short Hello from Germany.
We stop by the Hobbyist forum every once in a while.
Keep up working!
Thanks and Cheers,
berlin, de germany - Monday, April 25, 2005 at 17:00:34 (PDT)
hello im looking for a power supply for a five by one inch laser hene tube im looking for one with all the parts exposed thank you willi19047 verizon net
wil;liam j grayeski
penndel, pa USA - Monday, April 25, 2005 at 04:48:13 (PDT)
I to drive like this,so as to not have to accelerate and brake constantly.I find it much more relaxing to leave a distance from the car infront and just drive at a nice even pace,which also saves petrol and i arrive no later than the people who have been stopping and starting for the last 30 miles.But my comment is that even if you drive like this i have noticed that the cars behind me will not keep this constant speed and will just accelerate up behind me and then brake thus starting the whole traffic jam again.The only diiference being that it's a few hundred metres behind the one in front. [Why would the cars behind you do that? They'd have to intentionally drive slow, opening up a huge space, then speed way up again to consume that space. Drivers don't do this, since they're terrifed that other drivers will zoom into any space ahead of them. Therefore they tailgate. But we use this to fix traffic, because whenever you drive at a constant speed, everyone behind you tailgates you, and they end up going at a constant speed too. -billb]
dublin, Ireland - Sunday, April 24, 2005 at 13:25:09 (PDT)
Hi! I am doing a project on hovercrafts for my 6th grade science fair, and I found the "LARGE SIMPLE HOVERCRAFT" article very useful! We built it, and it really works! It is SO neat! Thanx!!!
Richmond, VA USA - Monday, April 18, 2005 at 17:50:54 (PDT)
my uncle and I have made a home made van da graff and are haveing problems. first is there easy way to replace the belt. second when we run the motor for very long connected to the axle that is spinning the spool the belt will twist over and mix the protons and electrions. can some one help me
Mi USA - Monday, April 18, 2005 at 07:59:28 (PDT)
i am a fan of this site, a comment on the tv tube electrostatic generator method: if you spray the tv tube with a thin layer of water you can get a much closer and secure connection. no tape needed. ie wipe your screen with a wetish rag and while it is still damp burnich the foil on the face.
Edgewood, WA USA - Saturday, April 16, 2005 at 23:44:12 (PDT)
I am looking for a safe electronic electrostatic generator. I have found the negative ion generators on your page (electronic's goldmine, etc) but need something that is both safe and battery operated.
What would be a good way to limit the current to safe levels on the 12V
battery operated Ion
generator from Electronic's Goldmine? Or, is there
another option? ['Safe' current is ~1mA, so to limit
negative ion generator's nasty pulses to one milliamp, you need to install
in series with the
HV output, with the value being 10,000/.001= 10 megohms. But standard
1/4watt resistors are only good for a kilovolt or two. So rather than one
ten-meg resistor, use five 2.2meg resistors in series. And heavily
insulate the solder joints! I'd use RTV silicone (the vinegar-smelling
kind of caulk.) First cover the resistor-chain with a piece of
aquarium air-hose slit down the side, then inject the goo through the slit
to cover the solder joints. -billb]
Hello I need to build a kelvin design challenge hovercraft. I have no clue ho to make the plans. I chose to do wiring option A so if you could possibly send me plans on what to do that ould save my life asap please help me.
Bowie, md USA - Thursday, April 14, 2005 at 09:00:36 (PDT)
Bill Beatty's 1995 article on Kelvin's Thunderstorm, aka Kelvin's Water Drop Electrostatic Generator, contained a beginning note to the effect of not mounting the metal parts on wood supports. Why is that??? [If you read the Kelvin waterdrop article, you'll find a whole section about not using wood. The beginning note about wood is explained in the main text. -billb] Cheers, Bill Bryant
William R. Bryant, Jr.
Ft. Pierce, FL USA - Sunday, April 03, 2005 at 21:51:52 (PDT)
http://amasci.com/miscon/energ1.html says electricity flows inside wires. I have heard that electricity actually flows on the surface of the wires. (I'm no authority, but I work for BellSouth and another technician told me this. It has also been my observation that ranks of BellSouth technicians are full of geniuses and near-geniuses.) [Electric current is not on the surface. That's a myth, but it's a widespread myth , and even some experts believe it. If they thought for a moment, they'd realize that if the current was only on the surface, then all that expensive copper would be unnecessary, and we could replace all the power cables with cheap plastic ropes with a microscopically thin copper film on their surfaces. In fact, electric current for DC and for 50/60Hz AC is all through the whole crossection of the cable. -billb]
My e-mail address is claypool at bellsouth.net4. (Remove the 4 at the end.) [See Electricity FAQ #10 -billb]
Nasvhville, TN USA - Saturday, April 02, 2005 at 08:37:43 (PST)
William, thank you for your article HOW DO TRANSISTORS WORK? It did help me enormously to get now at least a feeling of what I have been trying to understand for years! (and I am glad to know more people feel confused about it ;-) And I have always suspected there is something wrong with saying transistors are amplifiers... Thanks a lot, keep going like this :-) jarmen at hashcom.plremoveafterpl
Brzeszcze, Poland - Friday, April 01, 2005 at 00:33:20 (PST)
Hi there, I enjoyed having a look around your site. Good luck with your lab experiments! Have you cloned a sheep yet? Dr Sheep
Fife, UK UK - Monday, March 28, 2005 at 03:06:46 (PST)
Does anyone know of a physicist or retired physicist that would be interested in writing a white paper on coulomb force law relative to cold cathode emission? Or maybe someone knows a group that specializes in this activity. The paper will be used for the writing of a patent application. The pay is negotiable. Thanks for any help, Larry.
Asheboro, NC USA - Saturday, March 26, 2005 at 12:27:19 (PST)
Connected, supportive unity of many brilliant, lit minds is creations current way. We share more than all w/ each other for the whole, to come about beautifully! My spirits are: Martial/ meditative\dance\health, electro-mag.(natural and mech.), total equality/mercy, something out of nothing alchemy; conjer, construct, co-op... Please feel me easily; matter undermind, that mine are the intent of the higher source we both superconscieounsnurse from?? Send me !feedback!
T-town, Ks USA - Wednesday, March 23, 2005 at 07:40:08 (PST)
Hi, my name is Danielle. I have ONE query...what is a free-nrg blaster? I really need to know how one can be built to help my mom with her chronic back pains. she has a friend who has one of these machines. It has electric currents that when put around your wrists send strong current/zapping pulse like currents through your body giving u pins/needles like feeling, and dramatically helps my mom's back pain. Its from Rife Blaster or Royal Life. PLEASE HELP. Send any answers to my email at danii_bujo at yahoocom.au. Thank you. [That doesn't sound like a "Royal Rife" device, instead it sounds like a TENS machine. -billb]
Corrimal, NSW AUSTRALIA - Sunday, March 20, 2005 at 14:24:48 (PST)
I too discovered how a single individual can meter freeway traffic, exactly in the way you describe, sometime between '96 and '98. The thing is, sortly afterwards I quit the city and moved to the hills and been poor and happy ever since, METERING CULTURE these days. Hope it works as well.
Pike, CA USA - Saturday, March 19, 2005 at 21:39:49 (PST)
Hi I came across your site while looking for science information and found it interesting. I am 17 and from vancouver B.C and actually i rap lol kinda a unlikely place for me to be but schools school. I understand science very well and enjoyed reading your site and passed it along to my teacher to check out. Just thought id let you know i enjoyed your site and have a good day
Vancouver, B.C. Canada - Thursday, March 17, 2005 at 15:15:16 (PST)
i think u lot need to get a life, we all know that at the center of every black hole is klingon life, around the black holes ionic decompression zone is the guaoul federation. this is just common knowledge, u wheezing fools
USA - Tuesday, March 15, 2005 at 00:02:34 (PST)
I ran into your page on smoke rings after a discussion with my friends. Nice page, but I think it's misleading when you say, "NO AIR IS MOVING on average." Yes, on average, but that's also true when I walk across the room -- the air I displace in front of me fills the void I leave behind me.
My friends and I were talking about those "air cannons" which
we concluded were the same phenomenon as smoke rings, but one of the
points of contention was whether they actually sent a jet of air, or
whether they simply sent an impulse transmitted through the air. As your
page makes clear, there is in fact a mass of air traveling through the
surrounding air -- which there would have to be, since the smoke itself is
What I really want to know is how the ring maintains
its shape and doesn't simply dissipate. I think that would be a valuable
bit of information to add to the page.
i get shocked alot mainly when i make beds,sometimes when i put a key in the door i can see the electicity a little blue light. sometimes when i bump into things i get the shock of my life and it really hurts how can i stop htis or at lease calm it down?
albany, ny USA - Thursday, March 10, 2005 at 19:23:59 (PST)
I just wanted to comment on the point that was made about truckers and their driving habits through traffic jams. I admit I am an aggressive driver and have always noticed that truckers had an unusual large space of open road ahead of them......I always believed it was harder for them to brake...I wonder if they become upset when I pull in front of them or if they have the same point of view as you in trying to ease traffic. I don't think I would attempt your driving suggestion, because in the end I would still be ahead of you! [Let's see if I have this right. You can get ahead of me by probably twenty cars during a half-hour morning commute, arriving thirty seconds earlier. But me, I know how to singlehandedly shatter huge traffic jams, or at the very least, how to wipe out miles of stop-and-go traffic. If you can use your skills to cut your commute time in half, then I'd sit up and take notice. But aggressive drivers cannot do this, instead they reduce their commute time by 1% or so, while triggering traffic jams all throughout the system. They can't go faster, so instead they pretend that they're in a race, a race where nobody else matters and teamwork is ridiculed; a race where a tiny gain will put them over a finish line. But they do this through frustration and through ignorance, and so it's perfectly forgivable. But you, you're smart, and you've read my article, so you're not doing it through ignorance anymore, eh? -billb]
There is a similar situation on my freeway route (merging lanes) to work that causes a jam every morning. The highway is a constant 4 lanes, but when we get near downtown, only 2 shift northbound to the city. The right 2 lanes going to downtown back up and completely stop for quite a distance. The left 2 lanes are slow but they still flow at a decent pace. I know some think I may be a jerk, but why would I sit in stopped traffic when I can pull all the way up to the split and merge over at the last second. If I can not just pull over, I will just slow down (even stop) and wait for my moment...hehe...causing my own traffic jam in the 3rd lane; however, people behind me are usually doing the same thing. Oh...by the way ...I am moving to Seattle this summer 2005, so look out! [Lol! About half the commuters here are EXACTLY like you. Adding one more aggressive driver to the tens of thosands on the road; that's like adding one more bacteria to the culture in the petri dish. If you want to be different than everyone else, don't try to be a "winner" like all the other bacteria. Instead, just be different. Note that only very few drivers have the courage to try the traffic-busting techniques, or the brainpower to discover new "switch points" which allow individuals to remove traffic jams. On the other hand, aggressive driving takes no courage at all and certainly no brainpower, it just takes a bit of hatred of ones fellows and a serious lack of caring of the troubles caused by one's behavior. On the other hand, Seattle police aggressively ticket people like you. They even set up 'stings' and pull over all of em, while onlookers cheer. Moving violations are very expensive tickets. If you're coming to Seattle... maybe it is you who should look out. -billb]
Dan W. D.
Cleveland, Ohio USA - Wednesday, March 09, 2005 at 14:57:53 (PST)
A new book will be available on April 5th called PERFECTLY REASONABLE DEVIATIONS FROM THE BEATEN TRACK: THE LETTERS OF RICHARD FEYNMAN from Basic Books - For more info, please visit our website: http://www.basicfeynmancom - We would appreciate it if amasci.com were to add this title to the recommended books portion of the Feynman section on your website - Many thanks!
New York, NY USA - Wednesday, March 09, 2005 at 14:45:01 (PST)
I NEED MAJOR HELP AM LOOKING FOR A SMALL VORTEX MACHINE LIKE WE HAD IN SCHOOL BUT NEED IT TO BE ABLE TO MAKE GO SLOWER OR FASTER, THE KIND THAT MADE TORNADO'S IN THE JAR TYPE cmarie3157 at hotmailcom
cedar rapids, ia USA - Wednesday, March 09, 2005 at 04:47:27 (PST)
Hi Bill, I stumbled upon your web site while looking for kid-friendly info about kinetic energy. How wonderful it is to know that there are people like you out there in cyberspace who are concerned enough to get accurate science information out to all. As a teacher I am always trying to pass on the most accurate and up to date info I can get. Unfortunately we don't always have access to stuff that is right, so thanks a lot. Don't worry about putting it into lesson format, any teacher worth their salt can do that. JUST KEEP GIVING US THE FACTS... PLEASE!!!!
Sydney John Candler
johnscandler at yahoocom, ny USA - Saturday, March 05, 2005 at 01:35:32 (PST)
Loved the traffic experiments, excellent. The real question is... Does doing the gregarious act of attempting to remove traffic waves actually decrease, or increase your journey time? I suspect it is the latter. In other words, only generous people will increase their own journey time, to decrease that of others... If only there were a few more people like this on the roads! Gav gavinhudson at hot mail dot com
[When busting traffic-waves, how can it affect your journey time at all? Seriously. If you think it signficantly changes your journey time, please explain why. Ideally, all you're doing is to first determine the average speed of stop-and-go traffic, then second, driving at the average speed. In the ideal case, whether you participate in the stop-waves or not, you'll still go at the average speed.
But for more complicated moves, we can look to the truckers for philosophy. Truckers are a small community. They all want to go fast through congested cities. So they execute a move known as "reciprocal altrusim" where one member of the group clears the way for others who follow, and over many years the members take turns clearing the way. It's not pure altruism, instead it's selfish! But it's not pure selfishness either, because if truckers were selfish, none would volunteer to speed up traffic by taking the trouble to bust up the clogs of commuters. In reciprocal altruism you would try to bust up all traffic jams you encounter. But you'd also find that traffic was already flowing much more smoothly than normal, because some other reciprocal altruist had taken their turn being the jam-buster before you even arrived on the scene. On the other hand, if you want to be a cheater, and benefit from the work of others but without taking your turn... then maybe we should ALL become cheaters who sit and wait to reap the free benefits. You'll wait a long time in a society where True Altruists are almost nonexistent, and where reciprocal altruists have all decided that it's better to "avoid paying dues" and just put up with huge traffic jams. -billb]
Manchester, UK - Friday, March 04, 2005 at 05:48:57 (PST)
Phew... Bill lots of mail. My site seeks to help students learn Thermodynamics. Please take a look. http://www.thermomcom/item/stone_boiling/stone_boiling.html Thanks, J Pohl
Brevard, NC USA - Thursday, March 03, 2005 at 08:56:27 (PST)
Your list of Children's Misconceptions about Science from Operation Physics Project indicates 3 figures under Electricity (#8-10) but there are no diagrams. Where can they be found? MspollockTAKEOUT at earthlinkTAKEOUT.net Thanks,
Campbell, CA USA - Sunday, February 27, 2005 at 21:39:10 (PST)
Hey Bill! Fascinating website ("of course it is!" he thinks), of particualar interest is your article on traffic waves, a subject i have studied for over 25 years as a professional driver. I drove "b-train" fuel tankers for many years, and with a gross weight of 140,000 lbs they present an excellent opportunity to gain empirical data on these observations. I was curious about "standing waves" in traffic flows for many years. As you correctly state, drivers who take a competitive attitude to driving cause many problems and delays in traffic flows. I wrote our minister of transport many years ago with some ideas, he replied with a booklet of traffic stats and a terse note stating the obvious : that most accidents are caused by poor driver attitude and not necessarily lack of skill. Notwithstanding that, driving is a learned skill and my many years handling large heavy vehicles has given me appreciation for the subtleties of road management, subtleties that completely escape the average motorist. What particularly interested me were your strategies for minimising the impact of these traffic anomilies. As you said, truck drivers have been doing some of these things for years, such as reducing speed when approaching a standing wave. It actually does save fuel, time and aggravation. I, too, am a fan of Seth (since 1980) and many other things that could be considered out in left field.
Barrie, Ontario Canada - Sunday, February 27, 2005 at 17:43:22 (PST)
New science and engineering calculator, completely free with conversions, calculations, descriptions and material data.
UK - Sunday, February 27, 2005 at 12:40:22 (PST)
Thanks! My son and I just built the emotor - It works really well. By the way, we found a way to use the plastic cap as a bearing socket - Just drill a slight depression in it and use it with the pencil-tip bearing you discussed.
USA - Friday, February 25, 2005 at 13:46:10 (PST)
How can you increase the amps, and current in static electricity to let's say!? Fire magnets!? I understand a Van De Graff generator can produce up to 400,000 volts at like 10 milliamps! But that is not going to make electromagnets work huh!? I need more current, and more amps!
Glen Burnie, MD USA - Thursday, February 24, 2005 at 21:52:31 (PST)
I am "CHARGED" I need some advise on what to do to keep from getting ZAPED every time I touch something metal, or even kiss my wife. Thanx.
[See Doorknob Sparks-billb] Jim at pacericu at yahoocom
Puyallup, Wa USA - Thursday, February 24, 2005 at 16:45:00 (PST)
blew up tree in yard using sea salt and pig fat that i collected from a local butcher KABOOM!!!!!!!!!
bannerelk, nc USA - Thursday, February 24, 2005 at 10:14:04 (PST)
Good work,keep it up ! I will be back.
Imphal, M India - Thursday, February 24, 2005 at 02:52:47 (PST)
I really enjoyed your web site, but didn't find anything on tesla field ozone, built by Nikla Tesla? Can you find out anything on this subject? Thank You KD at kdkitty3cat at aolcom
Apache Junction, AZ USA - Wednesday, February 23, 2005 at 22:23:05 (PST)
I found your site in a reference listing.I would like to coment on what a terrific informative site that it is.Great job,well done!
Sutherlin, Or. USA - Wednesday, February 23, 2005 at 20:37:19 (PST)
Great site. I have linked yours from my site. Will you please consider a link back to my site? My site Electronics Infoline is all about circuits and schematics. In fact, it is a Schematics search engine and directory for electronics and computer enthusiasts. Schematics spread over from more than 445 neatly organized hierarchical categories.
India - Tuesday, February 22, 2005 at 08:32:49 (PST)
Hey, I've been a fan of your site for years. So, I was quite intrigued when I came across this article today: http://www.jalopnikcom/cars/novelties/japans-musical-roadways-033465.php Sounds familiar, huh?
Stockton, CA USA - Sunday, February 20, 2005 at 19:18:37 (PST)
Thanks for your tesla coil page. It helped me understand the G-line technlolgy used by corridor systems for Broadband over Powerline (BPL). I'm doing a paper on that for my Systems Analysis certificate at UC Berkeley Extension.
san francisco, ca USA - Sunday, February 20, 2005 at 14:33:03 (PST)
wow...last comment from russia...ia tozhe rysku u teper tu tozhe znaesh....i was searching for packaging mashine and got your website...next time try targeted marketing/promotion ;) .....ur in my favorites as of 1:24pm central time on Feb19 2005....
chicago, il USA - Saturday, February 19, 2005 at 11:23:17 (PST)
re: your suggestion about spraying titanium dust on the moon to paint a large graffiti -- such a project was written about by Robert Heinlein in his story "The Man Who Sold the Moon". A company contracted to launch charcoal dust in specific patterns to paint their corporate logo on the face of the moon. No laws against it! (At least not then.)
morgantown, wv USA - Thursday, February 17, 2005 at 13:16:49 (PST)
Your page is really interesting. But I colnd't find what I'm looking for. I need to know how NOT to get zapped by static electricity. It's driving me nuts!!!! I live in a very low humid state and anything metal I touch shocks me. Please help! Anybo dy there.....
Sara Kuza, Ja U - Tuesday, February 15, 2005 at 20:42:02 (PST)
See ya have a section on Feynman! Found a wonderful video clip of Murray Gell-Mann talking about working with him! http://www.edge.org/edge_video.html
Rochester, ny USA - Tuesday, February 15, 2005 at 19:54:58 (PST)
I once had a piezoelectric natural gas lighter and a Binatone clock radio. I made lots of sparks on the shiny clock settings buttons, until the minutes ran forward at several Hertz. Then I made more sparks, and the clock didn't work at all. But the radio still did, so I gave it to a friend.
UK - Monday, February 07, 2005 at 14:09:03 (PST)
Great site! I dey hereoooooooo
salt lake, ut USA - Tuesday, February 01, 2005 at 08:53:08 (PST)
You have a very nice web-site! Best regards, Nika!
USA - Sunday, January 30, 2005 at 18:46:27 (PST)
Hey, I didn't exactly find what I wanted but oh well. You have a cool sight. Today, I pranked my sister when she was at a skating rink, I got some tampons and drenched them in sauce to look like they had blood. That way, when her friend came over, she would see it in her room. Bye!
Evansville, IN USA - Saturday, January 29, 2005 at 20:01:51 (PST)
Great resources! Tons of valuable information! How long it will take to sift through all these sites! Keep up the good work.
Malden, Ma USA - Wednesday, January 26, 2005 at 05:56:07 (PST)
absolutely awesome, i intend to build the massive solar furnace using about 500 1cm mirror chips r.e.schneider at gmail. com
burke, va USA - Monday, January 24, 2005 at 13:17:04 (PST)
You need to have a section on where does the flavor go from your gum go when you leave it on the bedpost over night.
Indianapolis, In USA - Sunday, January 23, 2005 at 19:24:11 (PST)
Hi, I'm writing from an independent publisher where we are preparing a middle-school text on the history of science. We have a section on Bernoulli and airflow, etc, which includes the same picture of the Cessna coming out of the clouds that you have at /wing/rotbal.html. I thought you should know that this is not a "live" photo; it was produced for a Cessna ad by overlaying a stock photo of the plane on top of the cloud photo. So although the Bernoulli effect apparent in the clouds is really cool, it's not quite legit. Anyway, I'm adjusting our text in light of your helpful explanations here. Thanks very much.
New York, NY USA - Friday, January 21, 2005 at 14:21:20 (PST)
PLEASE EMAIL ME RE: "LISTEN TO EARS"! Has anyone tried this experiment yet? It is VERY important to me and on a separate issue to my mother. Please let me know. c.d.2oo4 at earthlink.net
SAN PEDRO, CA USA - Friday, January 21, 2005 at 08:49:00 (PST)
Physics and chemistry are killer courses! But biology is fun~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Canada - Tuesday, January 18, 2005 at 20:47:48 (PST)
well hey i'm from japen i love this site you help me out a lot thank
USA - Tuesday, January 18, 2005 at 14:33:16 (PST)
Great explanations on how to describe the basics in electrical science. I will compliment you futher and actually use the suggestions with my classes. PS I teach special education in a behaviorial setting. They love this stuff and show no signs of difficult behaviors when they are using the hands-on materials.
Troutdale, OR USA - Tuesday, January 18, 2005 at 12:39:27 (PST)
YOU PEOPLE ROCK,.. YOU SHOULD KNOW THAT,... WE ARE NOT WORTHEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE!!
USA - Tuesday, January 18, 2005 at 05:13:11 (PST)
We crossed paths briefly over the past couple years. I'm the guy with Tesla's double cone secondary coil. As a result of my research, I have now published, "Secrets of the Aether," a book about the new Aether Physics Model.
I wish you continued success in your experiments and research and hope you have time to review mine.
If this is guestbook for amasci.com, as beginner web designer, but experienced surfer, I am delighted with choice of colours on your front page. English is not my first language, so that it for now. God bless you!
Wien, AU - Saturday, January 08, 2005 at 20:37:33 (PST)
Wish you a very happy new year 2005. Great website with lot of information. I would like to grab some content to my site at http://www.electronicsinfolinecom , of course with full credit to you and your site. You can visit my site here. This site contains about 14000 link to electronics projects and resources spread across 445 categories at this moment.
Krishnanagar City, WB India - Friday, January 07, 2005 at 12:48:49 (PST)
This is a cool site y'all
queen creek, az USA - Friday, January 07, 2005 at 10:01:38 (PST)
Let me tell you how much I'm enjoying you site, it is something I've been looking for for a long time. Thanks for the magnificant effort.
Montenegro, Yugoslavia - Wednesday, January 05, 2005 at 13:58:53 (PST)
I got your email address off a web page...thought you may be able to help me.
I am looking for a light box, original built by both
sharper image and Radio Shack in Mid to Late 80s.
Heck, I would
even be interested in trying to build one. Maybe by my description you
could either comment on how difficult if would be to build, or if you have
ever seen the item I am asking about. Or possibly direct me to where I
could find the schematics and parts.
16" square box, 3-4" deep
front of the box is clear plexi or glass
inside the box is a led panel approx 2" x 14" long
panel contains atleast 100 individual LED lights of different colors
the LED panel rotates at constant speed when plugged in
cord also connected this box to a stereo system
The result, when
plugged in was that each song played thru this box emitted a unique and
intersting light signature, also looking like kind of a wandering raster
image when connected to sound source.
any thing you can think of?
Maybe a suggestion where I could post this similar email for feedback
Just a thought about your traffic model. I thought about the phenomena too, but it seems that you've left out one of the rules I considered key: When the cars/road ratio increases -- even for very small lengths of road -- cars tend to slow to adjust back to "safe" following distance. There's more than one idea in that, but it's similar to a "virtual" accident at the point of increased car density -- which takes on a life of its own. By the way: Neat site!
Wyncote, PA USA - Monday, January 03, 2005 at 11:07:59 (PST)
I was reading up on your homeade hovercraft and I had an idea, why not use a mounted fan on the back as a propeller? Nothing fancy just a simple box fan. Then, maybe you could add plastic rudders on the fan and control them with strings or something, if anyone has any suggestions please IM me on my AOL screen name: YaNkEeSrOsM009 with your first IM saying you have a hovercraft suggestion. THANKS A TON!
Lubbock, Texas USA - Sunday, January 02, 2005 at 20:01:28 (PST)
"In an AC circuit, charge does not flow forwards at all, instead it sits in one place and wiggles forwards and back." How can a charge sit in one place and wiggle forwards and back,and sit in one place at the same time?
USA - Sunday, January 02, 2005 at 04:35:38 (PST)