RIGHT ANGLE CIRCUITRY
- or -
AC Electronics for Alien Minds
|FIG. 1 Wrap an AC coil around
an iron rod, and you have an inductor.
But wrap your coil around an iron RING,
and you form a "toroidial inductor."
A toroidial inductor
is interesting because the induced magnetic field
remains hidden within the iron core. If the coil
was wrapped around the entire core rather than
in one spot as shown, then the magnetic field
would exist only within the iron core.
Even if the coil of wire does not touch
the core, it still induces a strong
magnetic field inside the core. The gap
between the coil and the iron ring can be
very large, yet this does not reduce the
strength of the field within the core.
Although the magnetic field stays inside,
something else does come out of the core.
The changing field within the core produces
a field of Vector Potential which surrounds
the core. This field is commonly called
We can intercept the A-field by passing
a wire through the hole in the
iron ring. This produces a voltage at
the ends of the wire, and this voltage
can operate an ordinary load such as a light
Perhaps this figure is more familar to you.
The wire which intercepts the lines of
"A-field flux" is simply the secondary
of a transformer. Note that whenever
multiple turns are passed through the hole
in the iron ring, the output voltage rises
proportionally. Two turns gives 2x the
voltage of a single turn.
We can route the "secondary" wire through
another iron ring. It will produce a strong
field within that second ring, and if we
add a "secondary" to that ring, we'll see
an output voltage. It acts like any other
transformer, even though there is an extra
stage of "A-field" linkage.
What if we don't use wire? If we simply place the
second iron core near the first, then the lines
of A-field flux will pass through both and
link them together. The result? Nothing!
No magnetic field appears in the second core,
and the extra secondary does not produce any
output voltage as it did in figure seven.
WHY?!!! I don't know. I haven't thought
deeply enough about this yet...
The A-field is associated with voltage
and electrostatic fields.
After all, if we add more turns to a
transformer secondary, we get more voltage
on the output. Perhaps we can use
capacitor plates to intercept the A-field?
What will happen? Can we extract energy
from the toroid without passing an electric
current through the central hole? I don't know.
In figure seven we formed a strange transformer
by passing a conductive ring through two ferrous rings.
This idea can be extended to ridiculous lengths.
If the iron cores are not lossy (use laminations,)
and if the conductive rings are not resistive
(use thick copper), then a long chain of alternating
rings will transmit energy with little loss and no
possibility of electrocution. The rings need not
even touch each other.
(Just what is Electrical Energy, if it can flow
through such a strange transmission line?)
Figure ten might seem weird, but even a simple
transformer is weird in the same way. Stretch the
core so that the primary and secondary are far apart.
Energy is flowing along the two sides of the core,
proceeding from the primary coil to the secondary.
Note that the transformer core need not be conductive. It could
be made of insulating ferrite.
With high-mu materials, the transformer core could
even take the form of wires. But these wires are
nonconductors. They "conduct" waves of magnetic
field. The electrical energy is guided by the
spin-flipping of electrons in the iron atoms, as opposed
to copper wires where energy is guided by flowing
Add a SPST switch to the previous "circuit", and
we can break the connection between the two halves.
A physical switch isn't required: instead we could
place a permanent magnet against the wire and cause
it to saturate and become magnetically "nonconductive."
Note that opening this switch reduces the inductance of
the iron ring, and causes the primary to draw
an enormous current. BREAKING THE CIRUICT PRODUCES
A "SHORT CIRCUIT" EFFECT!
Now that we've got a wire, lets wind a coil.
But what will such a coil produce? A-field!
Many turns of ferrous core-wire will give us
a higher output voltage, just as many turns of copper
wire passing through one turn of iron core gives
Let's add a core! Barium Titanate should
work. Or PZT ceramic (Lead Zirconate Titanate.)
Our "coil" should attract such a core, which
means we could build a solenoid actuator.
Or a motor. Or just use the PZT core to pick
up certain things. Things like lint, and little bits
of paper. It's not an electromagnet, it's an
OK, my brain hurts now. One last thing. Look at figure fifteen
and imagine all sorts
of "magnetic circuitry." Is there a magnetic equivalent of the
vacuum tube or transistor? The heater or light bulb? And can
we extend that PZT core into a ring of PZT wire, to create
insulating electric circuitry which conducts only
displacement current?! Yow!
James Clerk Maxwell might be spinning in his grave. But is he
rotating around his long axis, or flipping endwise?!!!