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Update 10/2001: A physicist in Sweden has produced a material made from sheet-arrays of C60 (buckyballs) and found it to be transparent and MAGNETIC. The article is in Nature (vol 413, p 716), also on
NewScientist Oct 17,2001
    Perhaps this explains part of the effect. However, Dr. J. Bockris at Texas A&M analyzed the detrius from this carbon-arc experiment and found iron. Some info about this can be found at Blaze Labs
Update 6/2001: using high-purity "spectrograph carbons" does not eliminate the magnetic grains produced by the arc. Dan Y. in Seattle found some pure carbon rods that analyze to a couple of ppm of silicon and manganese, but no iron. Grinding up this carbon does not produce any grains which are attracted by a supermagnet. However, after arcing at about 8 amps in air, some tiny magnetic particles are found mixed with the carbon detrius which falls from the electrodes. Could these magnetic grains be a paramagnetic compound of carbon, nitrogen, and/or oxygen? We must repeat the experiment in a He or Ar atmosphere!
    To produce an arc, I jammed the carbons into slightly small holes drilled in brass blocks, then wired them in series with a 1200W 120V electric heater. Also, I wrapped my NIB magnets in white rubber cut from a toy balloon. This produces a very clean surface, and any magnetic grains which it picks up can be easily seen with a hand lens.
Update 1999: at a "Weird Science" meeting in Seattle, Frank S. attempted the "carbon rods" experiment in air. We found that within the black debris created by the arc there were tiny dark grains which were slightly magnetic, and would leap to the face of a 1cm NIB disk magnet. Whatever is going on here does NOT require immersion in water.

A reference which I have not yet checked:

Sundaresan, R. and Bockris, J. 1994. "Anomalous Reactions During
Arcing Between Carbon Rods In Water," FUSION TECHNOLOGY, Vol26 #3,
Nov pp261-265

CHEMISTRY'S DIRTY SECRET: simple alchemy
Converting carbon into iron

From: Eugene F. Mallove, Editor-in-Chief and Publisher
INFINITE ENERGY Magazine
Cold Fusion Technology
P.O. Box 2816
Concord, New Hampshire 03302-2816
Phone: 603-228-4516; Fax: 603-224-5975

This note concerns what I believe to be an extremely urgent scientific matter: Confirmation (or rejection) of carbon-arc-in-air transmutation to Fe claims. This parallels the *underwater* carbon arc papers of the Bockris group (Nov. 1994 Fusion Technology), Ohsawa in the 1960s, and Singh et al (Nov. 1994 Fusion Technology), but is obviously a simpler test because it is in air. If it can be confirmed and then assessed as to reliability of the production of Fe, we have an astonishingly simple test that almost anyone could confirm for themselves -- another great virtue.

[NOTE FROM BILL B.:

Singh, M., et al., Verification of the George Oshawa Experiment for Anomalous Production of Iron From Carbon Arc in Water. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 266. Coauthors: Saksena, M. D., Dixit, V. S., Kartha, V. B.

Sundaresan, R. and J. Bockris, Anomalous Reactions During Arcing Between Carbon Rods in Water. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 261. ]

A description of the carbon-arc-in-air:


>From The Philosopher's Stone: Michio Kushi's Guide to Alchemy, Transmutation, and the New Science,, One Peaceful World Press, 1994. I include all the non-biological protocols, but the one of interest here is METHOD 3 (the others may be of interest too):

**************************************************
Experiments

Following is a brief outline of experiments conducted in Japan and France. Some of these experiments are physical transmutations and others are biological transmutations. These are only examples, and complete information will be-come available in the near future.

1. The Transmutation from Na (Sodium) to K (Potassium).

The applied formula: 11Na23 + 8016 >> 19K39

George Ohsawa and Masashiro Torii, Professor of the Musashino Institute of Technology, with several scientists, have achieved this transmutation of the atom from Na to K by the following method, first achieved on June 21, 1964.

In this experiment, one electric discharge vacuum tube with two poles was used. The length of the vacuum tube was 20 cm and the diameter 2 cm. Electric poles of several different metals were tested. The power of electricity used in this experiment was 60 watts. First, 2.3 mg of Na was inserted and sealed in the vacuum tube, and electricity was started running through the tube. About thirty minutes later, 1.6 mg of O was introduced, and a second later, Na changed into K.

This result was examined carefully by authoritative testing agencies, and the same experiments were performed repeatedly, yielding the same results.

2. The Production of Fe (Iron) from C (Carbon) and O (Oxygen).

The applied formula:

2 6C12 + 2 8Ol6 >> (2 14Si28 28Ni56) >> 26Fe56
[Note: there is nomenclature apparently missing between the Si and the Ni.]

George Ohsawa and his associates in Japan succeeded in their experiments with several methods to produce Fe from C and O. Later French scientists tested similar methods and confirmed the success of the transmutation. After creating the method to achieve the most efficient possible transmutation, they filed patents accordingly. The following examples show only a few methods to accomplish the transmutation from C and O to Fe.

Method 1: Transmutation in Air (A): Two graphite crucibles (approximately 2.5 x 5 to 6 inches) cover each other top and bottom. The upper crucible has a 10 mm hole, surrounded by a ceramic ring. The ceramic ring acts as an insulator. Into this hole, a carbon rod (0.25 inches in diameter) is inserted until it reaches to the carbon powder (2 to 3 grams) placed at the inside bottom of the lower crucible. The lower crucible has one or two small holes at the lower part of its side wall for air circulation. An iron base placed under the lower crucible acts as one electrode pole. The carbon rod acts as another electrode pole. As the carbon rod approaches the carbon powder, an electric arc arises. Continuing the operation for 20 to 30 minutes, the carbon powder changes to Fe.

In this experiment, the applied electricity is about 35 to 50 volts, and 8 to 18 amps, either A.C. or D.C.

Method 2: Transmutation in Water:

Using two carbon rods (0.25 inches in diameter), create an electric arc between them, by striking them on one another in water. This operation is performed for 1 to 5 seconds. Then, brown-black metallic powder falls down to the bottom of the water, which contains Fe.

The applied electricity is the same as in Method 1.

Method 3: Transmutation in Air (B.):

Carbon powder is placed on a copper plate, approximately 12 inches long, 6 inches wide, and 0.5 inches thick. This plate works as an electrical ground. A carbon rod (identical to the carbon rods used in Methods 1 and 2) used as another electrical pole, strikes repeatedly the carbon powder on the plate, producing an electric arc. The carbon powder changes into Fe.

The applied electricity is the same as in the above methods.

During the process of transmutation, Ni (nickel) is temporarily produced. But it disappears very soon, for it is an isotope with a radioactive nature. The life of an Ni isotope is considered approximately 1/lOOOth of a second.

In these experiments, the degree of transmutation from C and O to Fe is approximately 5 percent to 20 percent immediately, with a larger percentage of transmutation occurring gradually in the air, which has the effect of cooling the metallic powder to below room temperature. The Fe which is produced by this transmutation is stainless. It does not rust easily. It has also much less reaction to heat than ordinary iron, due to its composition of 2 Si (silicon) as the formula indicates. This iron was name G.O.S. (George Ohsawa Steel), given the initials of George Ohsawa by the scientists who worked with this transmutation.

All results of the transmutation of Fe have been carefully examined and analyzed by several methods including: magnetic inspection, spectroscopic analysis, chemical analysis, and examination by reagent, confirmed by authoritative testing agencies.

The various researchers who worked on the above (and the biological trasnsmutations:)

George Ohsawa-Philosopher, writer, honorary professor at Nippon University, honorary citizen of Paris, founder and president of Institut des Hautes Etudes Dialectiques et Scientifiques, Tokyo.

Masashiro Torii-Doctor of chemistry, professor at Musashino Institute of Technology, Tokyo.

Shizuko Washio-Doctor of biology, professor at Atomi University, Tokyo.

Sanehide Komaki-Doctor of agriculture, professor at Mukogawa University, Kyoto.

Chikao Narita-Doctor of medicine, president of Tokyo Shibaura Hospital, Tokyo.

Yuzuru Sasaki-Research member of Institute des Hautes Etudes Dialectiques et Scientifiques, Tokyo.

Noburu Yamamoto-Research member of Institut des Hautes Etudes Dialectiques et Scientifiques, Tokyo.

****************************************
The second source of a carbon arc in air experiment is from ICCF6:

Kenjin Sasaki from Tokyo, an agronomy consultant from Tokyo distributed a very interesting protocol which is like METHOD #3. He gave me photos of the process and the results, which would seem possible for any high-school group to verify. I will be publishing these photos and protocols in Infinite Energy #10, asking readers to try it. In the inimitable "Japanese English" - only slightly fixed, Sasaki's instructions:

**************
1. Ready for Job

2. Tool

Graphite crucible (four nines purity)
Carbon rod
Copper plate (for cooling)
Tray for water cooling
Electric welder (100 V, 10 A)
or Auto Battery and clip leads

3. Materials

Carbon powder (high purity)
Cooling water

4. Order of Experiment

A Put 2 to 3 grams of carbon powder in graphite crucible

B Strike electric discharge arc with the electrode, about 1 minute, done about 3 to 4 times only (i.e. no more than four times) -- [implies pausing between 1-minute arcs]

5. Inspection

A. Spread remaining carbon powder on paper

B. Slide magnet under that paper. You can see locus of the magnet -- it shows the iron bits [!!!! - my comment, EFM]

C. Take these [magnetically separated] materials and examine with a magnifying glass. You will find [among them] a brilliant alloy [!!!!, yes, I have photos of this alloy! - my comment, EFM]

6. Reappearance

This experiment is very easy for young student, literary person, bank man, woman, etc.

Kenjin Sasaki
942 Hikida, Akiruno-City
Tokyo 197, Japan
Phone: 81-425-59-5371
fax: 81-425-59-4927

**********************************
If I have the time in the next few weeks and wherewithal, I would like to try this myself, but I will likely not have the time. I am told by Chris Akbar in Boston (with the Kushi Foundation) that she has tried the experiment and it worked for her. She said it is important to keep the amperage between 8 and 10 amps. She used an automobile battery charger.

I do not think it is really necessary to have a static tray of cooling water under a graphite plate or crucible. I imagine that doing the experiment on a thick graphite plate would work as well.


                   Best wishes,

                   Gene Mallove




 




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