This is part 2 of WHAT IS ELECTRICITY. Loading...
CONTRADICTORY DEFINITION 1.
SCIENTIFIC DEFINITION: Quantity of electricity is measured in Coulombs.
Electric charges are
the "electricity." A flow of electricity is called Electric Current.
Dictionaries often define electricity as "a fundamental entity of nature
consisting of negative and positive kinds." This is a scientist's definition of
the word, where "quantity of electricity" means the same as "quantity of
charge." In other words, electric charge is a charge of electricity.
Franklin, Faraday, Maxwell, Millikan, Thompson, Einstein, and many other
historical scientists used the word "electricity" in this way. The SI
units and the CRC Handbook use this langage. For them,
an electric current was a flow of electricity. And
whenever we talk about electricity flowing inside of wires, or talk about
electrons being the particles of electricity, we're using the scientists'
Unfortunately, like all the other definitions on this page, this one
contradicts the others. If this one is right, then all of the others are
wrong. If we decide to follow the lead of the scientific community and
declare that "quantity of electricity" means "amount of charge", we create
some serious problems. First...
If "Electricity" is charge, then Electricity is not a form
of energy, and any books which say differently are spreading
Charge and energy are two completely different things. For example, the
charges in an AC cord wiggle back and forth without flowing forwards, yet
the electrical energy does flow forwards rapidly. Analogy: if
was like water, then electrical energy would be like sound waves. If on
the other hand we
say that "electricity" is both energy and charges, that's as bad as saying
that water molecules are made out of sound. (No wonder the
textbook explanations are so confusing!)
So, according to the scientist's definition of "electricity," any book is
wrong if it says that electricity is a form of energy. Charge is not
energy! Since electric charge is permanently attached to certain
particles of matter, we're forced to say that
that electricity is a basic component of everyday matter. We could think
of electricity like this: objects are made of molecules, which are made of
atoms, which are made of tiny particles called protons and electrons...
and the electrons/protons are made of positive electricity and
Under the scientists' definition, how fast does "electricity" flow? This
is the most controversial aspect of this particular definition. The drift
velocity of electrons in metal wires is slow; it varies in proportion to
current, but it rarely goes faster than a few
centimeters per minute. So scientists must say
that electricity in wires
flows very slowly. The speed of electricity
depends on the size of the wire and the value of the electric current. A
high current is simply a fast flow of "electricity." On the
the "electricity" in AC cords doesn't really flow at all. Instead it
sits in one place and wiggles back and forth over a very short distance.
Scientists would say that all wires are always full of "electricity:"
it's the movable sea of electrons found in all metals. When
a circuit is broken, the "electricity" stops where it is, and it remains
in the wires. But that's where it started out in the first place. All
metals are partly composed of movable negative electricity.
According to Definition #1, the "quantity of Electricity" is measured in
units called coulombs, or in units
of ampere-seconds, which means the same as coulombs. Electricity is NOT
measured in kilowatt hours (since, according to definition #1,
electricity is charge, not energy.)
Under definition #1 there are only two types of electricity: positive
electricity and negative. When electricity flows, we call the flow by
the name "electric current." The basic quantum of "electricity" is the
charge of the proton or the negative charge of the electron.
According to the scientist's definition, there is no such thing as
electricity. ("current" electricity is silly; like saying "current"
water or "current" air.) We can still speak correctly about an
course. Whenever negative electricity flows through positive electricity,
that's an electric current inside a metal. By definition #1, electric
current isn't a "kind" of electricity, any more than flowing water is a
different "kind" of water. Instead electric current is a flow of
electricity. (Notice that this goes completely against the Grade School
definition #3 below, which
says that the electricity is the flowing motion of charge, rather
than electricity being the charge itself.
According to the scientists' definition of "electricity," there is no such
thing as "static electricity." (Is "Static Water" a special kind of
water?!) What we call "static" is really just electricity itself, pure
and simple. In everyday life we rarely encounter "electricity" itself,
because normally matter is neutral, and the effects of the positive and
negative electricity within matter will exactly cancel out. "Static"
really isn't unmoving electricity. Instead it is UNCANCELLED electricity
or SEPARATED electricity. Pull some negatives away from some positives
and this allows us to us observe the behavior of pure "electricity."
However, even though "static electricity" doesn't exist, there still can
be a field of science called Electrostatics. Just as Hydrostatics is the
study of water forces and pressure, Electrostatics is the study of
electrical forces and the "pressure" called Voltage. And just as there's
no such energy called "static water," there's no such energy called
Under the scientists' definition of "electricity", the electric company
does not sell you
any electricity, instead it sells a pumping service. The electricity just
vibrates slightly back and forth inside the wires. Generators don't
"generate" this electricity, instead they only pump it. Metal wires act
like pipes which are already full of water; where the water is the
"electricity." Electrons are supplied by the wires, not by the electric
generators, so we should not say that generators "generate" any
electricity. Instead, generators act as electricity pumps, and all of the
"electricity" in the national power grid is supplied by the metal of the
wires. An AC generator forces the electricity of the wires to wiggle back
and forth. A DC generator (or a battery) forces the electricity to flow
continously in a circle, sort of like a drive belt.
electricity flows quite slowly, wires can deliver energy almost instantly.
(After all, if a drive belt should all move at once, then the
main drive-pulley can
instantly move all the distant driven pullies.) No charges are gained or
lost during energy transfer in a circuit, so if "electricity" is defined
as charge, then "electricity"
is NOT consumed or used up by any electric appliance. Neither is it
created. Instead, the "electricity" behaves like a mechanical
drive-belt: it fills the whole circuit, and it moves along slowly, yet it
can deliver energy almost instantly to all parts of the circuit or "belt."
What then is "electricity?" Under the scientists' definition there is
a simple answer to this question: Matter is mainly
composed of particles of
electricity (of electrons and
protons,) so if we should say that electricity is a type of matter, we
wouldn't be too wrong. Electricity is not matter in the everyday sense,
instead electricity is one step down from matter. It's one of the main
components of matter. Electricity has mass, although for electrons the
mass per cubic volume is very small
(the electrons of a wire are thousands of times lighter than the copper
atoms, yet the number of electrons rivals the number of atoms.
Under this definition, electricity is NOT invisible. Instead,
electricity is easily seen: objects are visible because light is
reflected by the atoms' electrons. When we
look at a bunch of atoms, we see only the atoms' outer shell, we see
only the electrons... we see only the "electricity". Electricity scatters
light, but it also causes
colors by vibrating resonantly in response to light waves. Conductors
because their internal electricity "shorts out" the electric part of the
light waves, causing mirror-like reflection. The sea of electrons inside
a wire looks like a reflective metallic fluid.
So, rather than being invisible, "electricity" is about the only thing
that IS visible.
Note again that this definition conflicts with the other eight definitions
Common uses of the word:
CHARGES OF ELECTRICITY. COULOMBS OF ELECTRICITY. FLOW OF ELECTRICITY.
CURRENT OF ELECTRICITY. POSITIVE ELECTRICITY. NEGATIVE ELECTRICITY.
Contradictory Definition 2.
THE POPULAR DEFINTION: Quantities of electricity are measured in
Joules or KWH
Electrical energy is "The Electricity."
This definition is used
by electric companies, and used by people who discuss home energy use and
home appliances. It contradicts all the other definitions on this page.
It is unscientific (since according to the scientists' definition above,
charge is not energy, so electricity is not a form of energy.)
Here are the consequences of defining "electricity" to mean "energy."
In an electric circuit, the electrical energy is not carried by individual
electrons. Instead electricity is composed of electrostatic fields and
magnetic fields which exist in the region surrounding the
energy within these fields is called Electromagnetic energy or
"EM." Therefore, under this definition of the word,
the "electricity" is NOT made of electrons, instead it is made of
Electromagnetic fields. In other words, energy-electricity is
the same stuff as radio waves and light. (Do we really want to say that
electricity is a kind of low-frequency radio wave? That's what we're
doing here! There is no escape from this problem, since electrical
energy in a circuit *is* a radio wave. It's just lower in frequency,
60Hz rather than 600KHz.)
Common uses of the word:
If Electricity is a form of energy, then in AC
power lines, we're forced to say that
electricity is made of 60Hz electromagnetic fields. In DC circuits the
electricity is still made of
EM fields, but their frequency is close to zero.
By this definition, the smallest quantity of "electricity" is the basic
particle of electromagnetism: the Photon. (Yes, electricity is Photons,
and NOT Electrons. Electrical energy is made of photons. Therefore
if electricity is a form of energy, then
electricity is made of photons. But this is true only if we use
If electricity is a form of energy, then we're forced to say that
"electricity" appears on the same frequency-spectrum as radio waves and
light, but is very much lower in frequency. Go find a diagram of the
Electromagnetic Spectrum or the radio spectrum. Look at 60Hz, and
there you will find the
quantities of "electricity" sold by utility companies.
If electricity means electric energy, then electricity does not flow
inside the wires. In electrical circuits, the electric energy
travels as invisible fields found in the space outside the wires and not
within. If "electricity" is energy, then whenever you wave your hand near
a power cable, you are putting your hands into the "electricity." If you
stand near a major cross-country power line, your body is in the enormous
flow of "electricity" being sent to distant cities. You can even wave a
fluorescent light under the power line, and it will light up even though
it's not connected to wires. It lights up because it is touching the
electric energy that flows outside the cables overhead.
The electric and magnetic fields of electric energy cannot be seen. If
"electricity" is energy, then electricity really is invisible. (Yet
high-frequency electricity is the exact same thing as light! Perhaps
"electricity" is the only visible thing anywhere...)
This "electricity" is sold by electric companies and moves at nearly the
light on its way to the customers. It travels as invisible pulses in the
region outside of the wires, while at the same time the electric charges
vibrate inside the
wires. Household appliances consume electricity and convert it to other
forms of energy. This "electricity" can be created and consumed,
much the same way that light waves and radio waves are emitted and
According to our definition 2, if electrons are like air molecules, then
"electricity" is like sound waves which move through the air. The
electrons sit in once place and wiggle back and forth as the "electricity"
flows through them. The energy in electric circuits is wave-energy, so
if "electricity" means energy, then electricity is a type of wave.
At higher frequencies, "electricity" or EM energy pours out of all radio
transmitter antennas. (If electricity is a form of energy, radio waves and
electricity are the same sort of thing. Only their frequency is
different.) Yet the frequency really isn't so important: if we had a
radio antenna 200 miles long, we could plug it into a wall outlet, and the
60Hz "electricity" produced by Electric Companies would be broadcast into
space. Such a thing happens naturally with long transmission lines, and a
certain tiny amount of "electricity" leaks away into space.
that "Electricity is energy" conflicts with the other eight definitions on
PRICE OF ELECTRICITY. KILOWATT-HOURS OF ELECTRICITY. ELECTRICITY
TRANSMISSION. PRODUCER OF ELECTRICITY. USE UP SOME ELECTRICITY.
Contradictory Definition 3.
GRADE SCHOOL DEFINITION: Quantities of electricity are measured
During an electric current, the flowing motion of the charges is The
Electricity. When the charges stop moving, the electricity disappears.
"Electricity" means the same thing as "electric current."
This definition is used in textbooks at the K-6 grade level. Note that it
contradicts all of the other definitions on this page. It is also
unscientific (see definition #1 above.)
Consequences of definition 3:
If "electricity" is the current, then "electricity" appears whenever the
electrons of a metal wire are forced to flow along (that is, the electrons
are forced to move
relative to the protons of the copper atoms in that wire.) And when the
flow is halted, the "electricity" vanishes, even though the electrons are
still there inside the wires.
Common uses of the word:
Be careful not to say that electric current is a FLOW OF electricity, for
this would be mixing definition No. 1 into this present definition. And
heck is a flow of Current??? If an electrical current is a
flow, then how can "flow" be flowing? What flows in rivers, current?
If "electricity" means current, then electricity never
flows. ELECTRONS flow, but according to this Grade-school definition,
electrons are not the electricity, the flowing motion of electrons is the
so it would be very twisted to say that a flow of electricity IS the
electricity which flows, because
the motion of a stuff... is not the stuff that performs the motion?!
Makes your brain hurt!) By this present definition, electricity cannot
flow, it can
only appear and vanish. If the current IS the electricity, then whenever
the electrons stop moving, the "electricity" blinks out of existence.
When the electrons start moving, "electricity" mysteriously appears all
throughout the wires. This electricity is not a stuff, and it is not a
form of energy. Instead it is a motion; a rate of charge flow. This
type electricity cannot flow,
but it can have a direction. (Why? Well, remember that water can
flow through pipes, but water-current cannot flow, yet water-current has a
direction. The same applies to flows of charge.) Does this make
your head hurt?
The crazy science in Grade-school textbooks certainly makes MY head hurt.
Under this definition, electricity is not a form of energy. Amperes are
not Watts. Electricity (Electric
current) does not transport any energy, and if you measure the current,
will know nothing about the electrical energy. If you measure the current
in a wire,
you cannot even tell which way the electrical energy is flowing. After
all, electrical energy can flow against the electric current or with it
(and electric current is a very slow flow of charges, while electrical
energy is a fast flow of EM fields.) Things get worse in AC wires, since
the electrical energy moves continuously forward, while the
electricity direction changes back and forth. Under the Grade-school
definition, electricity is certainly not a form of energy.
Under this definition there are only two kinds of electricity: AC
electricity and DC electricity; the two kinds of electric current.
Is electricity invisible? Although crowds of electrons are plainly
visible within wires (they look
silvery,) their flowing motions cannot be seen. Electrons' flow is
invisible, so if electricity is the current, then "electricity" is
invisible. Electric current produces magnetic fields, therefore this
"electricity" is closely associated with the magnetic force.
Grade school textbooks insist that "electricity" is the motion of
electrons rather than the electrons themselves. This is very bad for
standardized meanings of words, since
the textbook authors have stopped using the scientific definition of
"electricity." Instead they've gone and made up their own. This hurts
because the kids now have to imagine a special kind of flow... that itself
can flow along!
(What is a flow of a flow?)
Kids aren't supposed to imagine electrons flowing, they're supposed to
imagine ELECTRON FLOW that's flowing.
This is almost impossible. Electrons can flow, but "flow" cannot flow.
This definition is responsible for a whole collection of
misconceptions involving current.
Note that this definition conflicts
with the other eight definitions on this page.
CURRENT ELECTRICITY. AMPERES OF ELECTRICITY. FLOW OF "CURRENT"
Contradictory Definition 4.
Quantity of Electricity is the net-charge of matter.
"Electricity" is the amount of imbalance between nearly-equal
quantities of electrons and protons of a substance.
This is an old definition of "Electricity"; Ben Franklin would recognize
Consequences of definition 4:
Neutral matter contains equal numbers of positive and negative charged
particles. If the numbers are equal, then we say that no "electricity"
exists. Whenever these opposite charges are sorted out and separated
each other, we say that "electricity" appears. If the same electrons and
protons are allowed to approach each other and combine again, we say that
the "electricity" has cancelled out and vanished. According to this
definition, the electrons and protons aren't the electricity, nor do they
carry any electricity. Instead,
their SEPARATION or IMBALANCE is the electricity.
Whenever we have more electrons than protons in a single location, or more
protons than electrons, then "electricity" is present. Fur and rubber
no electricity, but when rubbed together, "electricity" is generated. This
type of electricity NEED NOT BE STATIC. It can flow along: if one
object is touched to a long wire, the imbalance of charge immediately
flows to all parts of the wire. Note that this is not an electric
current, instead it is an "electrostatic wave" where one region of excess
net charge causes a neighboring region to become unbalanced as well.
Electric currents include the flows of the cancelled charges inside a
neutral conductor. Propagation of net charge is something different.
These imbalances of charge cannot be directly seen. A charged balloon
looks the same as an uncharged balloon. The imbalance is tiny when
compared to the charge already there within the object, and its effect
upon light is tiny. By this definition, we must say that "electricity" is
invisible. Charge-imbalance creates electric fields, so we must say that
"electricity" is closely associated with the electric force. Note that
this definition conflicts with the other eight definitions.
Common uses of the word:
STATIC ELECTRICITY, FRICTIONAL ELECTRICITY.
Contradictory Definition 5.
A class of phenomenon involving electric charges is "The
definition is commonly used by the general public. By this definition,
anything that's electrical becomes a KIND of electricity.
Consequences of definition 5:
By this definition there are many kinds of electricity: bioelectricity,
piezoelectricity, triboelectricity, frictional electricity, contact
electricity, thermoelectricity, myoelectricity, atmospheric electricity,
geoelectricity, etc. By this definition, any electrical happening is a
KIND of electricity. Lightning is electricity, but so are batteries,
wires, and lightbulbs. Electronics is a kind of electricity (since
electronics is a subset of the greater class of phenomenon.)
Note that this definition conflicts with the other eight definitions. On
the other hand, all the other definitions on this page describe a variety
of specific electrical phenomena. Therefore, Definition Five can suck up
all the other definitions into itself, forming a huge tangled glob of
contradictory concepts that nobody, not even the greatest genius, has the
slightest hope of understanding. :)
We use the word "weather" in a similar way: wind, sunlight, and
precipitation are "weather" in the same way that charge, currents, wires,
and sparks are "electricity." But a river of rainwater is not a flow of
"weather" and an electric current is not a flow of "electricity." You
cannot carry a bucket of "weather" and you cannot collect this type of
Here are some less common definitions.
A. "Electricity" is a field of science. By this definition, the word can
be used interchangeably with the term Electrical Science or with the
section of physics called Electromagnetism. This
"electricity" is similar in to "optics" or "geology." It would be
silly to think that Geology is a substance or energy, therefore this
type of Electricity is neither energy nor matter. Instead it is a
chapter heading, it's an area of study. This form of electricity can
be found inside universities, and inside libraries. (These are the same
places we'd go looking for some biology or some physics!)
B. "Electricity" is a flowing motion of electric energy, it is electric power.
Quantities of electricity are measured in Joules per second or Watts.
This definition is used by some electric companies, probably in a
misguided attempt to combine definition 2 with definition 3. By
this definition, whenever electrical energy is transferred from place to
place, the rate of transfer is the amount of "electricity." Note well:
the electrical energy isn't the "electricity", instead they say that
"electricity" is the
flow rate. So when
electrical energy stops flowing, the power is zero and we must say that
the "electricity" has vanished, even though we still could have lots of
(non-flowing) electrical energy present.
If "electricity" is power, then
electricity can never flow (a Flow does not flow, a flow just appears
If "electricity" is power, then a bright light bulb exhibits a higher
level of electricity than a dim one. WATTS OF ELECTRICITY.
C. "Electricity" is the electric field. By this definition, radio waves
and light waves are said to be composed half of magnetism, half of
"electricity." When a high value of electric field is developed on a
mountain peak, the air in the environment is said to be full of
"electricity." Electric fields are invisible, so we can say that
"electricity" is invisible. This kind of "electricity" is
approximately the same thing as Voltage. VOLTS OF ELECTRICITY.
D. "Electricity" is the electric force. By this
definition, electrical attraction and repulsion *are* the electricity.
ELECTRICITY IS AN INVISIBLE FORCE, ONE OF THE FOUR FORCES IN PHYSICS
E. "Electricity" is not "electronics." Electronics involves transistors,
ICs, tubes, CRTs, signals, computers, etc. "Electricity" is
much simpler; electricity is batteries, motors, switches, light
bulbs, and perhaps buzzers and relays. We would never say that
"electronics" flows in wires, so we should avoid saying the same about
electricity. LEARN ELECTRICITY BEFORE LEARNING ELECTRONICS.
F. "Electricity" is nitrogen/oxygen plasma created by an electric field.
By this definition, whenever a spark jumps, we can say that
"electricity" jumped too. By this definition, lightning, auroras, and
St. Elmo's fire are examples of "electricity." This kind of
"Electricity" is a bit like fire. It is colored blue-white. By this definition,
"electricity" is very visible. Turn on a big Tesla Coil, and
"electricity" shoots out. SPARKS OF ELECTRICITY.