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Just a huge thank you for the Laser essay. I've been looking into lasers for 40 years and never found the answer to my one question, which appears to have been your question too.

Bill DeWitt
Lexington, KY USA - Wednesday, April 27, 2016 at 12:21:10 (PDT)
Just started on this and doing research. What is the difference in setting up the magnets and coils in these two different ways [(youtube) your, Simple generator: AC generator... and - How to build a Hydro Generator]? One has magnets within the copper coil while the other has magnets on the side of the coil. Does one create more power/energy than the other with less/more coils and magnets vs the other, and if so how or why? Thanks in advance. Anyone who might be able to help with some information, I appreciate it.

[Hi Hector. Mine is extremely simple, so kids in 2nd or 3rd grade can make it without help from their parents.

In the "hydro generator" video, theirs doesn't have enough turns of fine wire. That means, theirs cannot light a red LED, or even light the special 1-volt light-bulb listed on my project page. So, theirs needs a voltmeter. My version needs no voltmeter.

Theirs would work better if they had one steel plate and one cardboard disk. Maybe attach their coils to the back of an old iron fry pan bought from Salvation Army or a garage sale. The goal is to have the coils be thin like pancakes, with iron on at least one side, so the magnets can get really close to the iron plate as they travel over the coils. The steel plate will greatly concentrate the field from the magnets.

But even without improvements, theirs is the first step to making a real adult-level kilowatt alternator to power an actual home. All professional generators need many pounds of iron or steel in order to work right. Their pancake-style generator is designed to fit between wide steel disks. With steel, you can get thousands of times higher output than with cardboard. Just one piece of flat steel would make a big difference.

And, if they made their coils out of #30 gauge wire, rather than #24, then they could wrap lots more turns in the same space.Below is one of those high-wattage generator projects, using large neo supermagnets, and heavy coils embedded in solid epoxy glue -billb]

SIX THOUSAND WATTS!!! freakin' huge DIY generator

Hector Araiza
Las Vegas, Nv USA - Tuesday, April 26, 2016 at 11:09:03 (PDT)
I think you're the real person to get nice information of how electricity works.I tried looking these pdfs:[First principles of electrical engineering]( and [General lectures on Electrical Engineering]( and even the video on [Principles of Electricity]( which says that due to the electrons resistance the lamp is light and I was satisfied a little.All of my hope went away while reading this [lecture]( which tells that energy really flows from the outlets not the electrons.After that I was really confused whether it's electrons or energy that lights the lamp.Could you help me.
USA - Monday, April 18, 2016 at 03:24:39 (PDT)
Wow - a lot of interesting (and surprising) contributions - in particular your series about "misconceptions". However, I like to ask something about bipolar transistors (BJT).

1.) Do you have any explanation why the majority of textbooks (and I think it is the majority!) and other introductory contributions still describe the transistor as current-controlled? I really cannot understand because it is simply unlogical!. Everybody accepts 0.7 volts as necessary to open the BJT - but then they believe that variations around the bias point are caused by base current variations. But there are so many BJT properties as well as applications which can be explained with voltage-control only. How can somebody think that 3 charged carriers from the base region can "release" 333 other carriers from the emitter (assuming a beta of 300). To me, this is really a phenomenon. In several discussions, I have made already reference to your BJT description (how do transistors really work?)

2.) Another question: How is the Early voltage defined? I mean, how can it be found using the graphical method based on the Ic=f(VCE) curves? In particular: With IB=const or VBE=constant? I have checked several text books and Internet contributions (from universities!). Result: Both definitions can be found. However, only one can be correct, because the slope of the different curves is different (IB=const. vs. VBE=const) leading to different VEA values. Surprisingly, in the books no author says WHY the corresponding set of curves was selected for defining VEA.

3.)As another candidat for the list of misconceptions: In a resistive voltage divider, does the current I really "produce" a voltage drop? Or is it the electric field within the resistive body (caused by the driving voltage) that ALLOWS a current I ?
Lutz v. Wangenheim
Bremen, Germany - Tuesday, April 05, 2016 at 03:47:14 (PDT)

I had no idea how utterly wrong I was about almost everything to do with anything electrical. You nailed each of my misconceptions, one after the other; for once in my life, I just couldn't stop reading.

Finally!!! Electrical concepts make sense. Thanks so much for your fantastic explanations :)
Jackson Parker
ANT - Thursday, March 31, 2016 at 21:57:16 (PDT)

You are my favourite website to use for programs at the library. I have now passed this link on to three colleagues that are working towards expanding our "Maker Space". Thank You for all of your updates you this public librarians dream resource for teaching kids about peer resources and critical thinking!!! Mary-Lou Gelissen MLIS
Mary-Lou Gelissen
Windsor, ON Canada - Tuesday, March 29, 2016 at 12:57:14 (PDT)
Thanks a lot for creating and managing such a great archive of information and links for so long.
USA - Tuesday, March 22, 2016 at 06:38:28 (PDT)
Finally someone who actually teaches electricity properly. I am mainly interested in SMPS units for computers, but every explanation I find on them is poor. Not being satisfied, I picked up a texhbook on electricity, which had almost every single error you pointed out, so I shut that. I'm having a hard time trying to find a good resource to learn more about SMPS. But the one thing I love about you @Beaty is that you describe everything in terms of charge. Nobody else does this, and it is the very reason explanations suck when it comes to any electronics. Every time I read about some electronic, I leave unhappy because I have one question, for example: Okay, so these diodes do rectification, but what is going on with the charge in them? What about the charge in an induction coil, what is happening there? You are blessed for describing stuff in terms of charge.
Jeff Vunoia
Chicago, IL USA - Monday, March 07, 2016 at 19:22:18 (PST)
brilliant simple to understand its the only reading that I have found that makes sense its as if its a secret that nobody wants you to find thank you
manchester, england - Wednesday, February 24, 2016 at 17:43:17 (PST)
Just read your article about the energy-sucking radio antenna. The reason AM stations do not use short cryocoils for antennas is lack of bandwidth. Even a lo-fi broadcast needs 10 KHz bandwidth. The hi-Q cryocoil has almost zero bandwidth. Maybe in future we can switch to digital broadcasting and make the coil jump frequency at the bit rate.
Chip Veres
Miami, FL USA - Friday, January 29, 2016 at 15:34:54 (PST)
Just wanna say thanks for the detailed transistor explanations. Gonna read them when im back from work.
It's confusing starting out in electronics, electrons flow to fill holes?, but the holes go this way, except in a semiconductor,etc,etc

Gabriel Eberhard
USA - Tuesday, January 26, 2016 at 20:40:53 (PST)
I have come across an unusual phenomenon. I am building a wireless power system and it functions as I expected. However, I was observing (via skype setup) my receiver 120 feet away inside another lab. I disconnected my earth ground and my receiver signal stayed the same strength.

I am using an unusual, experimental transmitter and receiver built with ferrite transformers. I have worked with this system for two days and I am at a loss to explain this. I continue to receive 220 KHz deflecting on the Oscope from 1 - 10 VAC on the primary and 18 V on the secondary with my ground disconnected. I am sending pulsed power via a HP214B into the transmitter at 30 VAC.

I cannot explain how I am receiving so much power so far away with no connected ground, only a coil style antenna.

I think I may be dealing with a long-range electrostatic effect. Have you ever heard of such? The web has no references to this. This site comes as close to an answer as I have seen.

Have you heard of long range electrostatic coupling? I know transverse radio waves are not the reason, I have made every effort to move my transmitter coils and orientation. I have about 125 VAC at the end of my electrostatic amplifier gained from the 214B.

Martin Poole
Hampton Roads, va USA - Monday, January 25, 2016 at 14:24:02 (PST)

Hi, I was preparing a class of basic electronics and I had the impression that not exactly understand the operation of the transistor, dominated equations but did not understand the physical operation of the transistor. My search in the books was fruitless in order to understand what produced the proportionality between the base current and the collector and how a small current could cause a large current. Most of my questions were resolved with your article but there is one more that I can not solve. How do we control the base-emitter voltage? Ultimately, in the base bias circuits which change is the base resistance, which at his time changes the current, not the voltage, right? How to modify the resistance modifies the base-emitter voltage? I had the idea that this voltage remained fixed at 0.7V, and that from this value generated "complete" conduction. The way you explain it leaves much clearer actual operation of the transistor and the proportionality between currents, but still do not understand how we control the voltage generating both currents.

I giving you a sincere thanks for the contributions that you have made, I say goodbye with the joy of having found your page and the calm that I feel knowing that others agree that we should have a greater commitment to the truth that tradition.
Jos?Luis G. Torres
La Paz, Baja California Sur M?ico - Monday, January 18, 2016 at 07:44:34 (PST)

WHENEVER YOU HAVE THE CHANCE: I would appreciate it if the owner of this site added a link to, as it contains some excellent simple free energy concepts. I have never conned anyone out of money.
Nathan Coppedge
New Haven, CT USA - Wednesday, December 16, 2015 at 11:15:01 (PST)
Can an electron pump consisting of either a Van DeGraff generator or a Tesla disk, pump more power than the pump motor consumes, so with conversion by an electrostatic motor running a standard generator, free household power can be produced on the order of 240VAC 200A service and pay for itself by saving utility company power costs within 5 years?
Kirk Fraser
Clatskanie, OR USA - Wednesday, December 09, 2015 at 18:48:55 (PST)
Hello Bill, I'll keep my message short as I read you are swamped.(Your misconceptions are an awesome read and attract beginners like me).

Its a simple question (I think) but one I can't find an answer on the net for 2 weeks.

When you increase the voltage the current will also increase.
Ampere is coulomb per second and I my understanding is that it can be caused by

- having more electrons pass a point. So the _ammount of electrons that are mobilesed_ in the electron sea is higher
- or the _same ammount_ can be made faster

Beginners question right?

I know that the Ampere is actually a reflection of the velocity drift.

Electrons that are not under a potential move randomly and there is no direction.

A potential gives the whole of electrons a direction. Some can still bounce to the other direction. Its the net direction that counts.

Maybe I don't have to understand whether electrons speed up or if more of them are mobilized (or both, argh..). But this is bugging me

I'm trying to imagine what the little dots of charge do when they flow trough a circuit.

If you can point me to a source on the internet that you find reliable that would already be a great help.

Thanks for the enlightenment so far!

Tom Pester
Amtwerpen, USA - Sunday, December 06, 2015 at 04:13:28 (PST)

Hi, I started reading your rant on Electricity.
I went to school in ireland, many years ago. I certainly don't remember any mistakes, deliberate or otherwise, in our textbooks. Maybe they just didn't cover the subject much, its possible.

I did experience a few surprises all the same. For example when I realized that the current really flowed from negative to positive. Also in university when Maxwell's equations showed that for AC the current is in the skin of the wire and that the power actually slows through the insulator, that was weird.

My son is going through the french education system, I'll have to keep an eye on how they explain electricity.

Ciaran Deignan
France - Friday, November 13, 2015 at 02:07:16 (PST)

While the text appears to be from almost 20 years ago, the very recent comments prove how useful it still is. I'm glad I found it using a Google search about capacitors and certainly found it to be eye-opening. Thank you very much!
Oren Eliezer
Plano, TX USA - Wednesday, November 11, 2015 at 18:39:51 (PST)
I stumbled upon your site while searching for info on electricity that over the years I just could not seem to grasp and knew was off. Your explanations of those things and more have made the subject much more clear for me and definitely ironed out many misconceptions that I have had. Thank you very much.
USA - Tuesday, November 10, 2015 at 14:20:49 (PST)
Hi mate, I used to pour over this site 10+ years ago I'm glad to see it's still up and your still adding new content (along with a youtube channel!) Keep doing what your doing and I'll raise a drink on your behalf to another 10 years.
Chris Pyper
Warwickshire, UK - Wednesday, October 21, 2015 at 10:18:55 (PDT)
Just another heartfelt thanks from a new fan. Superb explanation of transistors, and I love your choice of simple language in your writing. Thanks so much!
Jeffrey K. McFadden
Richmond, MISSOURI USA - Saturday, September 19, 2015 at 06:50:57 (PDT)
Your explanation of VDG is great. Most web info on this including Wikipedia is nowhere as clear as yours. Deserves wider dissemination! Congrats
siva chander
hyderabad, INDIA - Monday, August 31, 2015 at 04:06:30 (PDT)
Hi. I just came across your page about scientific breakthroughs whose discovers were ridiculed for their discoveries. Toward the bottom of the list there is an entry describing that in the 1950s child abuse was attributed to mysterious spontaneous bruising in children, but there are no references to that information. I'm researching child abuse and was wondering if you could you tell me where I could find more information about that entry? Thanks so much.
[ I'll have to look. But I recall seeing many mentions that, before the 1962 publication of Kempe's "Battered Child Syndrome," doctors considered widespread endemic child abuse to be impossible, ridiculous. Yet the same doctors were directly looking at constant massive evidence of enormous numbers of child-abuse cases. And of course, all the reports from the abused children themselves weren't believed. Doctors rejected the idea that parents were the cause. It had to be mysterious spontaneous broken bones and bruising. Quick searching finds this one: Huffpost battered child syndrome. Also try keywords: "before 1962" kempe "child abuse" also "before 1962" "battered child syndrome" -billb]

Bath, ME USA - Wednesday, August 12, 2015 at 16:54:34 (PDT)
Well Bill, here is my testimonial to your grand tutorial sites.

I have installed, commissioned, repaired and decommissioned complex electronic radio, television and telecommunications equipment for most of my working life. I have repaired all manner of electronic equipment, restored vintage radio gear, generators, motors, audio, medical, scientific equipment and every other damn thing that manipulates those little billiard ball things we call electrons.

However, until I came across your tutorials, I had no idea about the nature of "electricity". My whole concept of the beast that has kept me in good employment for the last forty years has just been turned upside down and back to front.

After all these years of study, theoretical and practical examinations,I can now honestly say that I understand 'electricity'.

Thank you Bill, cheers and good wishes,

George Georgiou
Linton, Victoria Australia - Monday, July 27, 2015 at 05:20:36 (PDT)

Great article on transistors - how they REALLY work, and depletion layers controlling things etc. Been struggling with text book articles for years and they all contradict! [ Yeah, all those textbook authors are trying to explain it to college students. They don't realize that they can't succeed unless they first explain it to little kids. Or as Einstein said, "If you can't explain it to your grandmother, it means that you don't understand it yourself." -billb] Your artcles make more sense and easier to understand. Regards,\David M.Jardine G0FDV UK radio amateur
David Michael Jardine
Broad Oak, Sussex TN21 8TW UK - Monday, July 20, 2015 at 07:24:12 (PDT)
Hi Bill, nice to bump into your site this evening. I was looking for an audio, book or video that delivers a comprehensive overview of electricity, from earliest times to current day. The who, when, what they learned, etc. Suggestions appreciated.
Tony Maden
Overland Park, KS USA - Saturday, June 20, 2015 at 20:16:09 (PDT)
pls with the high cost of fuel, can gas be use to power the generator to provide electricity for household equipments. a very big market awaits this innovation especially in my country Nigeria.
mustapha kazeem
Lagos, Nigeria - Saturday, May 02, 2015 at 11:16:09 (PDT)
Just curious what the maximum frequency for a tesla coil is. Or is there a limit?
No real limit. People often build small 27MHz Vacuum-Tube Tesla Coils and use them as "Plasma Tweeter" loudspeakers. But Marconi, he did a game on all of us when he took the powerful radio transmitter invented by Tesla and renamed it "Spark transmitter." Yet when anyone else was using the exact same device, they called it by the name "Tesla's Oscillator," or "Tesla Coil."
      So in other words, we should be asking, how high is the frequency limit on high-wattage radio transmitters? After all, if we disconnect the antenna from a kilowatt radio transmitter, we get plasma outbreaks (high-volt sparking.) If you want to create really long sparks, then you just add an Antenna Tuner to any transmitter, and broadcast kilowatt megahertz AM with 120Hz modulation. Marconi wants you to believe that this is a "Tesla Coil" and not a radio transmitter. Fit only for a special effect in old monster movies?! Nope, and Marconi's own "whip crack" transmitters only could broadcast over twenty miles or so. Stealing Tesla's invention let him broadcast across the world. Don't get me started! :) Note also that a microwave oven is a kilowatt CW-driven high-volt resonator (same thing as Tesla Coil) but operating at two thousand Megahertz 2,500MHz. Most of the cool stuff that microwave ovens do can also be done on top of the metal terminal of any kilowatt TC. Or, if you trigger a spark inside a microwave, it goes "BRANNNNNNNNNN!" much the same as a CW VTTC Vacuum-Tube Tesla Coil with no supply filter. -billb
USA - Saturday, April 18, 2015 at 07:51:35 (PDT)
Thanks so much for the wonderful explanations on electrical charge!
M. Avila
Austin, TX USA - Thursday, April 09, 2015 at 07:25:43 (PDT)
Hello, I am very gratefull; thank you for sharing valuable thoughts and experiences. It helped me understand things I would have been ashamed to ask in a classroom situation. Also it has occupied my mind at times otherwise idle. I too have found that elementary physics is taught in a way that leaves little place for creation. Perhaps the reason it is so is that teachers are afraid of exposing their ignorance. Because who can say for sure he has seen a coil "store" energy in an invisible "magnetic" "field"? The words are in quotes as they are booby trapped with a cascade of possible queries from the learner. Classes are full and teachers have little time here too. There is something unnerving about learning how quantum physics or relativity works without having a feel for scientific/engineering phenomena on a gut level. Many I think will find themselves in my situation. To them your website is gold. Best wishes, from across the great Atlantic.
Nathan J
France - Monday, April 06, 2015 at 15:28:34 (PDT)
I was reading the "BEN FRANKLIN SHOULD HAVE SAID ELECTRONS ARE POSITIVE? Wrong." article and came across the third title: "Electrons are a kind of energy particle. Wrong."... i`ve been studying basic electromagnetism from the "Feynman Lectures Vol 2" textbook, and there this author practically contradicts your sayings. For instance he calculates "the energy to assemble a sphere of charge". I mean, if you manage to get an "amount of charge" (of one sign), as you say, you forcefully had to make some work to achieve such a thing! then you stored energy into this amount...there's another paragraph where Feynman talks about how the notion of electrical energy is incompatible with the idea of a point charge, because if the sphere potential is used to calculate it, then it tends to infinity (being it proportional to the inverse of the radius, or by the fact that if one calculates the job to assemble differential parts of a charge it ends up being an infinite calculation!)
Feynman was talking about the creation of matter particles. How much energy to create a proton, or a hydrogen atom? Well, better ask about the energy to create simpler types of matter, such as electrons. The energy in matter can be released, just collide it with antimatter. (Electrons are matter, positrons are antimatter; neither is energy.) Also, Feynman's same concepts apply to any other matter particles; protons, neutrons, rubber, concrete, air. But in my articles, the critical concept is that, in wires, electrons flow slowly, while the electrical energy flows fast. The energy doesn't travel with electrons because it isn't made out of electrons, the energy just follows the columns of electrons already inside the wires. The same idea applies to any matter-based energy transmission system: rubber drive belts, rotating drive shafts, hydraulics, sound waves, etc. The mechanical energy follows the rubber drive belt. Yet the rubber molecules in a drive belt are matter particles, not energy, and the rubber molecules travel slowly in a circle while the mechanical energy propagates almost instantly from drive-wheel to driven wheel. The mechanical energy is wave-energy, and the drive belt is the medium in which those waves travel. With sound, the energy (the waves) moves fast while the air (the matter) just sits and vibrates. A wave and its medium. And finally, with electrical wires, the electrons can flow fast or slow, forwards or back, or just sit and vibrate, yet at the same time the EM energy moves rapidly in just one direction. In other words, the EM energy is the waves, the electrons are the medium, and the propagating waves are not the vibrating medium. That's just another way of saying that matter and energy are two different things. In circuits, the matter is charged particles of the metal (electrons protons or ions) and the EM electrical energy is fields, is photons. Yes, electric companies sell us 60Hz photons, not electricity, not electrons.
Tom? Giudice
buenos aires, bsas ARG - Thursday, February 26, 2015 at 21:21:13 (PST)
Aaaallelectronic sc don't work
Prettyparadoxical Woman
marathon, fl USA - Thursday, February 12, 2015 at 18:11:56 (PST)
Have you ever tried to work with government or officials of any kind at instituting driver training programs to alleviate traffic? I've tried writing to my rep but got no response. I know if we can get someone to listen we can do a lot of good, but I'm not very charismatic in that fashion. I think may be I will try to create a YouTube video or some other kind of social media campaign.

All the cool stuff is happening in Europe, while over here the experts sneer at such stuff. There was a public info project in Atlanta, but they got little funding and it only ran for weeks. But at the same time, this website slowly infects the whole US population, and today I see four or five gap-leaving drivers every day on my commute. When I started all of this back in early 1998, I never saw any gap-leavers at all, just truckers. Also, I think that anti-tailgating public campaigns have been tried and failed (I remember seeing TV ads in the 60s.) If experts are certain that this training always fails, they won't try it. If they're certain that they'd have to train 100% of drivers (rather than just 2%,) they're not going to even bother. But those old programs weren't based on modern discoveries in dynamics. Also, they never tried to show drivers *why* tailgating doesn't actually work, and never tried to actually demonstrate that tailgating is the main source of the huge daily backups during rush hour. -billb
Anyways, keep up your good work. I love seeing a scientific approach to common problems.

Charles S
Seattle, WA USA - Tuesday, February 10, 2015 at 06:38:02 (PST)

Hi William, I've been enjoying your posts on electricity and it's helping clear up some questions i had however i find that some of the explanations are lacking in detail. Specifically i'm trying to understand how electromagnetic energy/waves are produced by e.g. a battery. I've read that electromagnetic waves are produced when charged particles are accelerated. Are electromagnetic waves just osculating electromagnetic fields? If so how exactly are the produced from accelerated charge? How are they guided by the wires carrying the current, and how are they converted into visible light in e.g. a light bulb? Thanks a bunch Tristan
Melbourne, VIC Australia - Tuesday, February 03, 2015 at 18:36:13 (PST)
Simply Awesome! A different kind of explanation.
Suneel Gupta
Chandigarh, Chandigarh India - Monday, February 02, 2015 at 06:38:24 (PST)
Very interesting website, I suspect I will be coming back often.
Joany Orozco
Miami, FL USA - Saturday, January 10, 2015 at 20:39:50 (PST)
RE: trux driving side by side trying to pass. If slower truk slows down for ten seconds the passer can get by and free that lane. You lost less than ten seconds. I always did this but most are too self absorbed.
gregg petersen
gravois mills, mo USA - Saturday, January 10, 2015 at 12:23:02 (PST)
Bill, As an EE it always bugged me that I didn't REALLY GROK electricity. I earned great grades in college, graduated and have used my "knowledge" to put food on my family's table for years, and yet, until reading and re-reading your electricity works I always felt an uneasiness...I didn't REALLY "GET IT" like I needed to....Thank you SO MUCH for your electricity writings and please don't stop! are making a huge difference. Have you published a consolidated work on electricity or are you thinking of doing so? With sincere appreciation, Robert
MD USA - Tuesday, December 23, 2014 at 06:19:20 (PST)
Does violet light magnetize iron! From the works of Professor Domenico Lino Morichini , to Mary Somerville and onwards...Have you played around with this experiment at all? Oh and..Thank you for turning me onto scratch holograms, I'm buying a CNC in 2015 and am making my first set of straight from Maya holograms ! *) Excelsior!
Shoghi Castel de Oro
Los Angeles, CA USA - Monday, December 15, 2014 at 00:10:18 (PST)
This is a great site Thank you
Damietta, Egypt / Damietta / Zarqa USA - Thursday, December 11, 2014 at 18:03:25 (PST)
I have been supposedly teaching how PN junction work But only now I understand it intuitively. Thanks a lot
Omer Korech
Israel - Wednesday, December 03, 2014 at 01:29:49 (PST)
In reference to the LEVITRON article on your website,
The question came up as to whether Bill Hones or Roy Harrigan invented the LEVITRON, and whether Roy Harrigan got ripped off, is an interesting article and saga like a cliffhanger theater episode. After having looked further into the topics of anti-gravity and levitation, mag-lev, and gyros, I saw how that Eric Laithwaite had already invented and patented the large scale model of the floating ball, or magnetically levitated sphere. His invention of this was in the 1970's and the video of his invention in operation is readily seen on youtube. So, it seems neither Roy nor Bill were the original patented inventors. Eric Laithwaite was. His patants are easily found on google. Laithwaite's wasn't a Levitron, wasn't a permanent magnet lifter. His was AC maglev coils, and maglev itself goes years back before Laithwaite. Laithwaite's invention was AC induction levitation of conductors: levitation of nonmagnetic metals. Levitron is DC levitation of a spinning magnet. -billb

j brooks
Houston, Tx USA - Monday, December 01, 2014 at 10:16:09 (PST)
Hi There, I have come accross your site by chance - whilst looking to make a very simple generator for my sons school project (he is 7). Your cardboard versionlooks excellent, and just what I am looking for!

I wanted to ask though - I know you say that I MUST use the materials detailed - but can other, similarly sized magnets work. Iam finding the exact size hard to come by (he in the UK!). Perhaps I could use neodymium magnets? Please let me knwo what you think...

Excellent site!

Thanks Daniel
Oxford, UK - Wednesday, November 19, 2014 at 05:13:28 (PST)

I googled 'three pronged plug' attempting to figure out if I needed to put one in a plumbing pipe lamp and found your marvelous website. Learned more about electricity than in my previous 73 years, and my son-in-law and I laughed more than a few times at your fascinating stories. Thank you for being bright, informative, and funny! We read the whole thing!
Jan Bennett
Arlee, MT USA - Saturday, November 15, 2014 at 16:54:23 (PST)
I found a cracked spot/small hole in the 'ceiling' of my GE microwave's inner lining. Is it dangerous to use it now? The lining appears bubbled and brittle, too, up there. GE says replace it. Must I?
Donna Lussier
Murphy, NC USA - Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 17:35:28 (PDT)
I have loved this page for years. I am using many of the quotes you generously harvested in my upcoming book, "Power Without Pills: One Psychiatrist's Guide to Healing and Growth."

Today I posted on my Facebook page one of your own: "Progress in science is something like climbing a mountain. Only most mountaineers don't set up a new basecamp every ten feet, then leap out to attack anyone who tries to climb past."

-- Bill "huge ego" Beaty

I love it. It's not always true; sometimes great scientists' work is ignored (my favorite example: John E. Sarno, MD... curing chronic pain for decades with a lecture. No attacks from modern medicine... he's ignored.

PS: As a psychiatrist I liked your failure to capitalize "huge ego"... it creates an odd, paradoxical, oxymoronicish quirky feel, which I like.

Frank Murphy, DO
Longview, TX USA - Friday, October 24, 2014 at 05:10:14 (PDT)

Hi Bill; Been a few years! Glad to see you are still the geek studying us freaks! Lol!

Wow! Princeton beat a dead horse to draw strange conclusions. Haha! I'm now 52 and wanted to turn you on to a new thing I learned. The electricity plays heck on our muscles and neurological system over time! Getting struck by lightening didn't help me in the 90's, but have been fighting bicep probs about a year now! Just figured out from my electric. From my 8 year d grandson! Glad he lessons at school and to me! Killer pain as knots move place to place sometimes just flipping a light switch. I'm far from you but help when I can. In NC so on my own. Lol. Take care friend. Thanks for info from your research. Would help with more on paypal but am disabled in the south now. A woman alone down here doesn't do well in such a situation, since I did physical labor. I deserve it for moving south. Duh. Take care. ;)
Crystal Osborne
Asheboro , NC USA - Friday, October 03, 2014 at 23:32:29 (PDT)

William :) I want to cry from happiness... Thanks alllllllot
Muzamel Noor
Surat, Gujarat USA - Thursday, September 18, 2014 at 01:28:06 (PDT)
For me you are like a Bowl of Water in a Desert...
May Allah(God)Keep you Alive Till i see in person
:) Eat good food i don't want to loose you Beaty

Muzamel Noor
Surat, Gujarat INDA - Thursday, September 18, 2014 at 01:20:41 (PDT)
With regards to your "Threadlike streams of 'Electric Wind', 1998" at url
The sun seen at 19.3 nm from the Solar Dynamics observatory has features alot like what you demonstrate. This makes sense to me as an electronics engineer, that the rotating sun is a dynamo. But the conventional explanation for all the features is 'magnetic field lines' because there is an assumption that the solar atmosphere is an arbitrarily good conductor so no electric fields can be sustained, thus ideal magnetohydrodynaics is the conventional way to look at it. It doesn't look like that to me! Wonderful program for looking at the Solar Dynamics Observatory downlink archive:

David Saroff
Charlottesville, VA USA - Saturday, September 06, 2014 at 21:14:48 (PDT)
I am a older person just looking for answers... At night I have been seen what I thought were stars but what frighten me was these stars began to move. These stars or balls of light are either shapes of blue, red or white. I can scarcely see a few beams shooting or aiming at the same mark in the sky. Is this possible? I search the web trying to find answers but have yet to find anything. Trust me I am not off my rocker or eccentric. I don?t want to push my opinion on anyone else because of the consequences that may take place. Have you heard of such a thing?
Keep silent
Los Angeles , ca USA - Saturday, September 06, 2014 at 21:03:47 (PDT)
I am a older person just looking for answers... At night I have been seen what I thought were stars but what frighten me was these stars began to move. These stars or balls of light are either shapes of blue, red or white. I can scarcely see a few beams shooting or aiming at the same mark in the sky. Is this possible? I search the web trying to find answers but have yet to find anything. Trust me I am not off my rocker or eccentric. I tried explaining this to my wife, I don?t want to push my opinion on her or anyone else because of the consequences that may take place. Have you heard of such a thing?
Keep silent
whittier, ca USA - Saturday, September 06, 2014 at 21:02:48 (PDT)
I was wondering if the website is a scam. It sounds too good to be it? Thanks casey
Casey Coleman
Utica, Ny USA - Tuesday, September 02, 2014 at 10:48:14 (PDT)
Does anyone know where I can get a giant prism?
Robin C
USA - Tuesday, August 12, 2014 at 15:32:10 (PDT)
Thanks a million for the article on capacitors (water-filled sphere). I was trying to square with why current flows through a capacitor while it's charging. If it's accumulating charge, then the current should flow in, but not out the other side! Thanks again!
CO USA - Friday, August 08, 2014 at 14:04:05 (PDT)
Bill Betty, Read your article: Tesla's big mistake? Wow, you are a ducking idiot who knows just enough to be dangerous.
USA - Thursday, August 07, 2014 at 08:54:51 (PDT)
Hi. I have just started playing with transistors and read the article. Thinking for yourself is almost a lost paradigm within science. YOU SHALL THINK AND EXPLAIN THE WAY WE DO.(period)

[In school, everything is based on the single right answer. In textbooks and on tests, there always has to be just ONE right answer, otherwise all tests would turn into essay questions, and teachers would have too much work in grading. (And, if there's just one right answer on the text, then all the different textbooks have to use the same one, or students would get suspicious.) But out in the real world it's this instead: "If you don't have two or three different approaches to explaining something, it means that you don't really understand it." -billb]
I have just tried out transistors as switches, and the voltages and currents needed to operate a BC547 or BC557 is ridiculously low. Almost won't register on my multimeter. To me they don't really amplify current per se, they source it as a switch. But no-matter the interpretation, this trial and error testing has helped me understand why most people run with the amplifier model. And I see how it can be misleading. Your article has done a good job of pointing this out. I wish we would strive for more simpler and thorough explanations within science and engineering, because to me it is sometimes eternal soup, with glimpses of sudden clarity. In short; we should change our dietary needs into more solid foods. ;-)

Kristiansand, Norway - Saturday, August 02, 2014 at 06:29:20 (PDT)

I've been fascinated by your works about scratch hologram.You've explained detailed in your website but I'm sorry that I'm still pretty confused about the question of whether it's a real hologram or not. My question is mainly based on the fact that the scratch hologram really works like a stereogram or stereo photograph. You've pointed out that it's not,but you didn't explain it. In Gardner's paper "A Mechanically Made Hologram?",the geometrical analysis of the formation of the image point is totally about the formation of depth of a point in a stereogram,isn't it? And my second question is about the "line scatterer",the scratch with the width of about few hundreds nanometers is clearly could function like a fringe and thus diffract light into all direction(and thus scatter into a cone-like shape) but if we enlarge the scratch ,the cross section is like a concave mirror and can also scatter like into cone-like shape,am I right? Finally,I think the rainbow hologram is actually is actually the same as conventional hologram but it harness the technique of reducing the band width to reduced image blur so we could observe the image under sun light. But the scratch hologram has nothing to do with interference and diffraction(when enlarge the scratch),could we really see it as a real hologram? Looking forward to your reply.
Chengyi Luo
Guangzhou , Guangdong China - Monday, July 28, 2014 at 01:25:06 (PDT)
My 9-year old loves science and loves your site. We built the cardboard generator with your help. He has this funny idea of attaching something similar to his dog's tail and calculating how much electricity she can actually produce. Any advice? I love his enthusiasm but I am not sure how to proceed; he wants to do this for a science fair project. I was thinking of a doggie diaper with lightweight parts attached. Perhaps the dog could wear it on her walk to calculate how much electricity could be made? I've seen similar items for bicycles. Thanks, Bertha V
Bertha Vazquez
Coral Gables, Fl USA - Sunday, July 20, 2014 at 12:00:42 (PDT)
Why not try a circular bowl of stainless steel (connected to negative polarity) filled with tap water and connect a small point electrode in the center of it and pulse DC at between 600Hz and 16kHz using a constant current generator? The point should be in the absolute center of the bowl.
Sweden - Wednesday, July 02, 2014 at 13:09:26 (PDT)
Just wanted to share a simple aviation science project that is making the rounds, walkalong gliding. It is a cool way of soaring paper airplanes on a piece of cardboard. It's a wacky way to hack sustained and controlled flight.
Phil Rossoni
Belmont, ma USA - Tuesday, June 24, 2014 at 10:43:30 (PDT)
love the site Bill.
one thing i haven't seen on the site is any mention of walter rawls and albert roy davis's work on magnetism

USA - Wednesday, June 18, 2014 at 15:25:06 (PDT)
i have just been reading your pages on the Kelvin electrostatic generator and had 2 ideas
1] would not electrostatic be useful for keeping the rings charged.
2] using diodes it should be possible to connect these in series ( or as a voltage multiplier ) to produce as large a voltage as you could want.

paul fellows
middlesbrough, uk - Tuesday, June 17, 2014 at 05:18:59 (PDT)
Does Bill have an article on the "Power Factor" (scam) correction devices advertized on the net? The ridiculous claims these people are making for these devices is almost criminal.

Stacy, MN, mn USA - Sunday, June 15, 2014 at 07:25:46 (PDT)
This is the first time since college (some 40 years ago) that I finally figured out why I did not do well in electricity portion of physics. I graduated with a professional degree in a science related field with good grades and could not ever figure out how that escaped me.
C Standley
Sunnyvale, ca USA - Friday, June 13, 2014 at 13:03:46 (PDT)
I loved the way you explained and i am going to make the same for my school project. But the problem is that I live in India and i do not know from where I can get the material. If you have any information please help. Thank you for the information
Rishabh Chauhan
New Delhi, Delhi India - Wednesday, May 28, 2014 at 08:29:23 (PDT)
Thank you for the traffic info. I commute 5 days a week to the UW from Olympia. It is usually an hour and a half each way, but I am obsessed with the causes of these silly jams! I am such a nerd, I had to find out.....and here it is! I have always done the slow with lots of space in front of me because I thought it would be easier on my car, come to find out, it is also helping with the jams! I am wanting to put a Go Pro camera in my car and record patterns. Fascinating. Thank you.
Jen Lee
Lacey, wa USA - Friday, May 23, 2014 at 22:19:00 (PDT)
I need info on deciphering a dream, and some supernatural happenings from childhood and up. Also one specific dream about the end of the world as it seemed that has significant weight on me. Please e-mail me back.
Robert LeClaire
St. Paul Park, Mn USA - Saturday, May 17, 2014 at 04:34:09 (PDT)
I found your site because I am 1)interested in science education (director or Stonerose Eocene Fossil Site for 13 years - open to the public for fossil collecting) and 2) because I have an assignment in technical English that requires I critique a website. So I choose your because I want to peruse it fully. I am also currently taking a physics class that is kicking my butt. Anyway great science site - keep up the good work.
Catherine Brown
Republic, WA USA - Wednesday, May 14, 2014 at 06:56:22 (PDT)
hi, I was watching your amazing short video of making liquid nitrogen. I would like to ask if its safe for food.
I want to apply this method to my making of molecular desserts. It's a chocolate cigar, with smoke coming out of one end. That requires dipping the end into liquid nitrogen. So i'm not sure if this 99% alcohol method is safe for consumption.
Much appreciated for your answer!

hk - Tuesday, May 13, 2014 at 09:16:30 (PDT)
I have had experiences ranging from causing radios to static out in my presence, "small" metal objects resisting my presence and bouncing away, unable to wear clothing with tags sewn in (the metallic irritates/sears into my skin), my skin shows a fluorescent blue when a photo is taken of me (only under certain conditions), huge blisters (water blisters) form on the bottoms of my feet (primarily my left foot) and when the blister pops and I pull away the skin there is "perfectly" formed skin underneath "unmarred".

I have made the faces of newer cell phones change a variety of colors from black to blues, greens, yellows...and this has happened from a distance as well as in the same room when I call the person(s) with the newer cell phones.

A few of my friends have said that I'm a human conductor (battery) because lint like products will cling to me when walking in stores (almost like a vacum'cleaner sucking lint up through the store). My hair goes off the charts when walking by store windows, like its trying to cling to the glass and yes I am constantly being shocked, shocking others. I have photos and testimonials, even a DVD for proof of all that I have mentioned.

So you tell this something scientific, spiritual or what?
Aurora, Co USA - Tuesday, May 13, 2014 at 06:30:25 (PDT)

Electric People ==== Have you investigated if there is a link between that and almost having an allergy to metal especially jewelery ?
Fran Anderson
wv USA - Monday, May 12, 2014 at 08:11:27 (PDT)
Hello, Bill. Thank you for sharing the information regarding the phenomena of crashing computers, street lights, batteries, et cetera on Coast to Coast AM . It's a comfort to know that I am not alone. At least I am not "afflicted" all of the time, only under certain circumstances.

Looking forward to hear and read more about your study.
Christine Thompson
Redlands, CA USA - Monday, May 12, 2014 at 04:17:44 (PDT)

Amazing, I am not alone. For years street lights have turned off when I approached and back on when I passed, even in the car. I can clear up static on t.v.s and radios by standing near them. But I used to hear radio stations in my teeth until I had dental work done at the age of 20. When I was little I lived near a proving ground and my father worked there during WWII, we would go out at night and watch things exploding above our house and I thought maybe it had something to do with that.
Fullerton, Ca USA - Monday, May 12, 2014 at 03:06:48 (PDT)
Im listening to coasttocoastam and ur talking about people an electricity. Im one of those people I effect outlets if I go t o the store I will draw half inch or more arc and it hurts. Even during the summer, also mess up computors my cell phone. I always wondered what was wrong with me. my phone number 318-773-4609. Thanks for letting me an others that we are not alone.
janet fowler
SHREVEPORT, La. USA - Sunday, May 11, 2014 at 22:43:24 (PDT)
Hi Could talk to you about street lights, and why I think it works. Am in Seattle on Sundays. Send me a message if you want to chat. Jerry
Sequim, Washington USA - Sunday, May 11, 2014 at 22:39:40 (PDT)
hi, I'm older, 48, and I have been wondering for years why street lights go out when I walk under them.
lisa a. sidels
Garden Grove, California USA - Sunday, May 11, 2014 at 22:30:32 (PDT)
I so appreciate your micowave experiments, i have for years wanted to put a diamond in a microwave to see what will happen. i cannot really spare a microwave nor do i own a diamond. Have i perchance finally found the man for the job? anyway have enjoyed surfing your site.
USA - Sunday, May 11, 2014 at 07:05:06 (PDT)
Neil Clark Reinhardt
Hawthorne, California USA - Tuesday, April 01, 2014 at 21:06:05 (PDT)
Hi Bill,
I just wanted to thank you for stopping by my blog post on the late merge and to thank you for your comments. As I mentioned in my reply, both my husband and I are huge fans of yours -- especially your work in traffic!

We also agree that you would love to drive in Turkey. The efficiency there is mind boggling -- all rules of the road, including numbers of lanes, red lights, speed limits, etc are loose suggestions. Where there are two driving lanes available, they line up five across at a red light. If your brake light is still on at "red-yellow" they will honk to remind you that the light will change soon. There is no sound wave as the light changes. The whole group of cars begins to move as one object. And the horn is a way to communicate - there is no punishing of other drivers, people are happy to let you in when they can!

Of course, they still have terrible traffic (and one of the highest rates of accidents in the world) but I miss it terribly when I am waiting at a pointless light or when, if the guy in front of me would just inch forward a couple feet, I could make my turn and be on my way! Have you ever had a chance to visit a country where the driving culture is similar?

Thanks again.
Alyssa Garrelts
USA - Sunday, March 23, 2014 at 00:56:50 (PDT)

Hi, I kove this site. Would be glad if you add my little Project to the Free Energy Links. Although I do offer a kit, one can build it without it, by reading the comments on the corresp. youtube video page. The tendency of water to evaporate is an untapped source if energy, just like the expansion force of wood when put into water. Unlike many other FE things, this gives you a little success. It's a real thing. See here:

Zurich, Switzerland - Friday, January 31, 2014 at 05:34:31 (PST)
There is a interesting work posted online called, "The Story of Our Planet" By E.W.King. this guy mixes modern science with the Christian Genesis account like I've never seen before. Look it up and check it out. Interesting sci-fi if nothing else :)
San Jose, Ca USA - Sunday, January 05, 2014 at 14:18:22 (PST)
Love the article on Laser Coherency. Keep up the great work.
John Richmond
Wadsworth, Oh USA - Saturday, December 14, 2013 at 04:01:23 (PST)
Wouldn't it make sense for Tesla to hand over incorrect data and theory knowing that his debt to Morgan and signing over his patents would cause the competition of free energy to own the means in which it could be created? Meaning that if Morgan owned the rights to how to distribute free energy, it wouldn't be free if it were ever created in would be a violation of copyright or make Morgan richer. No one would be able to distribute free energy. That's reason enough not to divulge accurate information that the wrong person could patent/copyright develop and sell. Everything Tesla was against. He didn't want anyone to make money off power. He wanted free power for everyone. The problem is/was that it's going to cost someone to build up the means by which free energy can be distributed. Will someone invest for free for the greater good of all and not profit financially?
Darla Laughlin
Henderson, NV USA - Friday, November 29, 2013 at 03:49:15 (PST)
I have a beef with your physics-based explanation of how the humble transistor works. I readily accept that once you've applied a forward bias to the BE junction you've managed to stuff the base full of electrons. But doesn't the potential across the BC junction constitute a reverse-biased diode? I can't agree that the BC depletion layer is like an air gap at all - it's positively littered with atoms of your semiconductor of choice plus those of the the doping agent. And when when electrons jump an air gap, they have this amusing habit of ionising the atoms in the air along their path - in a semiconductor, we'd call it breakdown. It's just not working for me.
Mike May
Worksop, Nottinghamshire United Kingdom - Tuesday, November 12, 2013 at 01:28:29 (PST)
by theway it seems you forgot amon the maverick: shechtmann

about semmelweiss, don't forget his predecessors

"In past centuries, the greatest killer of women was fever following childbirth. One woman in six died of this fever. In 1795, Alexander Gordon of Aberdeen suggested that the fevers were infectious processes, and he was able to cure them. The consensus said no. In 1843, Oliver Wendell Holmes claimed puerperal fever was contagious, and presented compelling evidence. The consensus said no. In 1849, Semmelweiss demonstrated that sanitary techniques virtually eliminated puerperal fever in hospitals under his management. The consensus said he was a Jew, ignored him, and dismissed him from his post. There was in fact no agreement on puerperal fever until the start of the twentieth century. Thus the consensus took one hundred and twenty five years to arrive at the right conclusion despite the efforts of the prominent "skeptics" around the world, skeptics who were demeaned and ignored. And despite the constant ongoing deaths of women."

Crichton cite other tragedy

"There is no shortage of other examples. In the 1920s in America, tens of thousands of people, mostly poor, were dying of a disease called pellagra. The consensus of scientists said it was infectious, and what was necessary was to find the "pellagra germ." The US government asked a brilliant young investigator, Dr. Joseph Goldberger, to find the cause. Goldberger concluded that diet was the crucial factor. The consensus remained wedded to the germ theory. Goldberger demonstrated that he could induce the disease through diet. He demonstrated that the disease was not infectious by injecting the blood of a pellagra patient into himself, and his assistant. They and other volunteers swabbed their noses with swabs from pellagra patients, and swallowed capsules containing scabs from pellagra rashes in what were called "Goldberger's filth parties." Nobody contracted pellagra. The consensus continued to disagree with him. There was, in addition, a social factor?southern States disliked the idea of poor diet as the cause, because it meant that social reform was required. They continued to deny it until the 1920s. Result?despite a twentieth century epidemic, the consensus took years to see the light."

recently there is a contriversy with Dan Everet and linguist

reading that document

they show how the Brasilian university organized a boycott, refusing even to critic and attend at his conference.

They manipulated the FUNAI, which give permit to go there, so they refuse Everett the permit.
Villejuif, - France - Sunday, November 10, 2013 at 00:33:24 (PST)

Thanks for your list of maverick inventors.

I quoted it (the directory, kept the link) on lenr-forum, in a long list of scientist bullying...

Prepare to add Flesichmann&pons, Bockris, Miles, Andrea Rossi, ... to your list

I propose some analysis of the pathological denial

and Jed rothwell have written a bloody article to explain the unscientific behavior of physicist community, as usual

I tweeted you list to Nassim nicholas taleb which defend the same vision that science is done by practitioners, trial and error, maverick, and not by academics.

Read Antifragile...
Villejuif, - France - Sunday, November 10, 2013 at 00:16:47 (PST)

Re Tesla blowing up Tunguska but lacking the required miles-long antenna, you do in an earlier question mention a possible plasma antenna. Well, maybe...
Shhh! -billb Also your guestbook needs a tidy-up, badly!

USA - Sunday, November 03, 2013 at 18:24:25 (PST)

Your pages on " How Do Transistors Work?" were a godsend! I have been trying to learn/understand electronics since I was about 14 (I'm 52 now) and FINALLY someone explained this concept in a way my inquiring and visually oriented brain could comprehend!
Great page and thanks!

Paul H.
Newalla, OK USA - Tuesday, October 29, 2013 at 17:53:22 (PDT)
Hi. Very neat info on scams. I had been involved over the summer with the Founder of several "free energy" companies, a Mr. Phil Talbert, thorugh doing work for his publishing Company Astral. He is totally connected wit the Searl people. Seriously wondering about you folks opinion on the 'Great" searl. Is he a 'Great Oz?'
Jamo Lorswal
Fort Lauderdale, FL USA - Saturday, October 26, 2013 at 20:31:44 (PDT)
Have you ever thought about publishing an e-book or guest authoring on other blogs? I have a blog centered on the same topics you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my viewers would appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an email.
Jaiper Feliciano
Houston, TX United States - Tuesday, October 22, 2013 at 07:52:30 (PDT)
I'm a trustee with Awesome Seattle. We give out $1000 of totally free cash money to someone with an awesome project idea in Seattle or the PNW every month. This month, we want really off-the-wall fun ideas rather than community-service type stuff, so I'm trying to get the word out to creative hacker/maker types in the city!

Details and example crazy projects, such as meat-filled pi?tas for lions at the zoo (my fav), or LED-filled balloon dance parties:

So I was wondering:

1. Do you have crazy awesome project ideas that you'd like to throw into the mix?

2. Could you send this challenge out to your membership and anyone else who might have cool ideas?

Let me know if you're willing to spread the word! Deadline is Oct 31st at midnight, and I'm available to consult on applications or bounce ideas around with people.

Rachel Popkin Trustee, Awesome Seattle
Rachel Popkin
Seattle, WA USA - Sunday, October 20, 2013 at 09:48:45 (PDT)

Is this Bill Beatty? I am a LONG time admirer who finally has access to the internet again- I used to use your essays to teach science kids in high school electricity... Thanks for your work over the years, and your courage in the face of the tower of babel scienc priesthood know-it-alls !! thanks, again, stuart
Stuart vencill
Joseph, OR USA - Tuesday, October 15, 2013 at 12:24:08 (PDT)
Interesting! Pegasus Research Consortium is following your work, my freind, and we would love to have you as an honorary member of our forum, we research all forms of energy, propulsion & taboo subjects, our analysis is free & accurate. Well done, even though i suspect you are too busy to join us ;) Luke, global moderator, founder Inventors Group at PRC....
USA - Monday, October 14, 2013 at 09:49:51 (PDT)
This is a really good read for me, Must admit that you are one of the best blogger I ever saw.Thanks for posting this informative article.
Stephanie Smith
New York, NY United States - Monday, October 07, 2013 at 08:14:53 (PDT)
Bill, thanks to your obsession for getting things exactly right, my obsession for trying to understand things exactly right has been temporarily satisfied (with respect to the basic principles of how electricity behaves in this case). And I'll be back for more. Cheers mate!
New Zealand - Monday, October 07, 2013 at 04:49:13 (PDT)
Hey I really love your website. You have a love of great stuff on science that are very information and engaging. Thanls
Pune, MH INDIA - Monday, October 07, 2013 at 02:01:22 (PDT)
i just want to ask you a question about inductor how it drops max voltage across it when we just apply supply volage?and also back emf does produce any back current?please answer my question
india - Sunday, September 22, 2013 at 11:04:41 (PDT)
HI.. i am acctualy work at a company that sell electrical equipment such as wiring devices, protection etc. But i get confusing weeks. Becasue i want sell and explain about RCD but.. many of "source" that "RCD" is to protect human from fatal electrocultation. Then i've try to find about electrocultation.. and it say ... when the current flow trough your body.. i ll try to find what the heck is current.. then i find in "you" there is no such "current" its flow... so getting confuse. but after spend everyday read your article.. my brain fully missconcept. since a long-long time ago, maybe people around me.. they think that... in the cable the "current" is flowing.... Since i've read your "out of mainstream teaching", start to understand .. the complex about electricity.. hahahaha.. for me is still complex .. That's all .. thanks alot ....
Tulus Budi Susilo
Bandung, Indonesia - Thursday, September 19, 2013 at 05:25:20 (PDT)
Still feeling weird about what I saw last night. There was a thunderstorm in the area. A light came down, twirled in front of my car, then went along side of me and disappeared. I was sober and three of the six people in my car witnessed the same thing. We were all afraid to say what we had seen, immediately. But within a few seconds, one passenger said, "what the hell was that?"

We all admitted to seeing the same thing simotainously right away. I'm still freaked out by this
Brian Subocz
Northampton, Ma USA - Friday, August 23, 2013 at 22:32:42 (PDT)

Simply awesome, brilliant, and scintillating. Loved tesla page. Hats off to you, and hope this site runs for ages...
Vivek Brahmbhatt
Bharuch, Gujarat India - Wednesday, August 14, 2013 at 22:22:07 (PDT)
Anyone in need of light sensitive paper for experimentation? Spectral Sensitivity: 360 to 620 nanometers. I have several rolls of this.
James Garner
Albuquerque, NM USA - Saturday, August 10, 2013 at 12:22:23 (PDT)
thank you science hobbyist
raf sistemleri
istanbul, USA - Monday, August 05, 2013 at 10:45:27 (PDT)
Depuis J?ai vu le nom d?Antoine Fabre d?Olivet sur votre site, Je vous invite ?voir nos ?ude et les grands progr? r?lis?, relative ?ses d?ouvertes sur la langue h?ra?ue et sa origine hi?oglyphique, sur notre site web: www [DOT]

Merci par les r?acteurs de genesirestituita.

If you love science, we love you

Angelo Bianchi
- Friday, July 12, 2013 at 02:55:01 (PDT)

Hello William,

I wanted to thank you for your excellent explanation of things electricity related.

I received education with emphasis on electrical engineering and i have to admit i never "understood" electricity. I studied all the formulas but what this capital I with unit [Ampere] was really standing for and what was travelling with the speed of light always remained nebulous to me.

Your writings finally provided my mind with sensible images (for now I only read a small part of the pages starting with the transistor but will surely go on) dissolving this uncomfortness about the subject.

14 years after my diploma i am still very interested in science and increasingly found that things related to electricity in particular did not "feel right".

When I saw that your articles are from when I was tought things in an unclear way - at least - I had to tell you how important your work is!

I sincerely thank you for your efforts!

Mr. Marian H.

Educated in Austria/Europe

(As you see not only the US is affected;-)

Marian H.
Austria - Thursday, July 11, 2013 at 09:42:16 (PDT)

how can i do to my new science club to my school pls
Rapheal Essilfie
ghana, USA - Tuesday, July 09, 2013 at 04:06:15 (PDT)
Hah this is funny stuff, I will no doubt find myself " Launching thought-balls at irritating drivers" whilst driving to work in the mornings.

I need to liven up my skip bin site a bit more with humor after reading this I think :)
Brisbane, QLD AUS - Friday, June 28, 2013 at 05:01:05 (PDT)

thank you very much with your discussion on "balloon balance" experiment. I was in 5th when i actually performed the experiment and showcased it to the parents and visitors on science day.

I became a mechanical engineer and learnt buoyancy.

Because we were child then and believed whatever is taught to us was right, it came as a shock to me that such a lie was taught to us.

I was searching for truth, and i found it here.

Thank you.
India - Thursday, June 27, 2013 at 01:08:43 (PDT)

I'm an aspiring yachtmaster and came here looking for a simple explanation of electricity that I could apply to the marine environment. What a discovery! Your clarity, analogy and meter are just what I needed!

One thing I would say is that I think you could take the 'bicycle wheel' analogy further. This was the moment that clicked everything for me!

The explanation of the 'instant friction' caused on the 'holding hand', when movement is made with the 'power hand' is, I think, I perfect illustration of the difference between the 'movement of charge' (amps) and the 'movement of power' (watts).

The extension I would recommend is to add volts and ohms by saying that the hand which is moving the wheel (the 'power hand' could belong to a young child, or a world-class strongman. Each may move the wheel at the same speed, of course (amps remain the same), but how hard you would have to squeeze to stop the wheel (ohms) would be different in each case.

In this way, you can describe the child as having a low voltage, and the strongman as having high voltage. I think this ties together the concepts quite nicely in that analogy.

At a stretch, you could perhaps even extend further to cover the concept of doubling volts = quadrupling watts. You could suggest that the person moving the wheel does so by grabbing it, spinning it, then releasing with one hand as he grabs with the other and repeats the process. In the analogy, if the person were to release the wheel, it would continue to spin. Obviously, the stronger the person, the faster the wheel would spin.

The hand squeezing to stop the wheel would still get get hot trying to stop the wheel, even if the 'power hand' had let go completely. So there is power in the movement of the wheel itself and how hard it would be to stop would be related to who had been doing the spinning - it would be easier to stop the child's spinning wheel than the strong man's.

If the 'power hand' had not let go, however, the wheel would be ever more difficult to stop! Not only would the you have to overcome the spinning of the wheel, but also the strength of the person still spinning the wheel.

In this way, we can see that the strong man not only has the benefit of strength when he grabs and spins, but he also has the benefit of being able to get to a faster spin rate - thus, to stop the wheel is made twice as difficult by combination of these two things.

Phew! I really hope I haven't misunderstood the underlying concepts now!

Thanks again for your very instructive page!
Ben McEvoy
Sydney, NSW Australia - Wednesday, June 05, 2013 at 19:35:15 (PDT)

Bill- Your site has got a ton of cool resources, and I'd love it if you added a link to our site somewhere it makes sense. My company manufacturers magnetic sweepers, separators, and other industrial magnets. Thank you!
Charlie Shields
Ventura, CA USA - Friday, May 31, 2013 at 14:49:51 (PDT)
really enjoyed your "why 3 prongs" article. request you add the swing back to HRG (high resistance grounding.) Mat
Mat Ansari
USA - Tuesday, May 07, 2013 at 11:26:27 (PDT)
I found your (i.e. Bill Beaty's) site via a youtube and a bit of googling.

You might be interested in which is a frozen forum, with evidence that nuclear weapons were a hoax, and presumably still are.

If you haven't heard the idea, it will probably seem a bit improbable. In which case the idea that nuclear power is also a fraud will seem even more improbable.

Anyway, have a look. It's entirely serious.
Ray West
Manchester, UK - Saturday, April 27, 2013 at 04:55:40 (PDT)

Many people have been persecuted for ideas that later turn out to be correct. The solution to this is simple: resolve that you'll never persecute anyone. And you can go further and put yourself in their shoes by developing your own new theory. However, unlike you, these people didn't pursue every idea they could think of. They chose a set of ideas that fit together and resonated with their personal beliefs. They made a synthesis that, although contradicting established knowledge, was coherent enough to robustly fill the gap that would be left if established knowledge was discarded. That's why everyone hated them.

An inevitable consequence of pursuing fringe theories is that there's a possibility you could be wrong. And if it someday turns out you were wrong, that would retroactively make you a liar. However, if you believe in your theory, you take that risk, because you know about the many people for whom such a letdown didn't happen.

As you explain yourself, it seems you are not that brave. For you the truth is not a precious gift worth trying to mine and smelt. For you the truth is just the cocaine sprinkled on your vegetables. You take in every idea you can find, with no selectivity, because you're determined to have the truth in your head. The problem is that even if you have the truth, you don't know the truth, because you have no way of finding it among all the countless contradictory alternatives.

This could be just your own problem, except you don't stop there. You unload your collected mess onto a public website, so whatever happens to someday be proven true will be linked to your name without you having done anything to earn it.
USA - Tuesday, April 23, 2013 at 04:54:08 (PDT)

Nice project. My site might be of interest for science hobbyists interested in ways to tap 'energy from the vacuum', why the aether is back again and why signals faster than the speed of light are possible.
Cornel Slenters
Switzerland - Friday, April 19, 2013 at 09:10:40 (PDT)
making a film on Zug Island
Adam Makarenko
Toronto, Ontario Canada - Wednesday, April 10, 2013 at 22:11:43 (PDT)

I found your Aviation and Education links on the internet and maybe you would like to add:

I wrote the Dutch version ten years ago and since then it is visited by Dutch and Belgian schools for lessons and work pieces.

Since the website is visited by other than Dutch speaking people, I translated the website in (British) English.

It is about the amazing Wilbur and Orville story, but also about what followed with an amazing speed. The technical part covers the engine, the wing, control and how to build something light and strong.

I think it it suitable for grade 6-8 and beyond.

Kind regards,
Hans Walrecht
The Netherlands

Hans Walrecht
Alkmaar, Netherlands - Tuesday, April 09, 2013 at 09:27:27 (PDT)

You rock man.
Scott M Collingwood
Murwillumbah, NSW Australia - Wednesday, April 03, 2013 at 21:07:31 (PDT)
What a great site! Would that something this clear and understandable were written in all those numbing books I struggled thru in my youth. You have clarified some major questions I have had about electricity, and I thank you! Email me if you ever write a book (which you should). Thanks again!
jim rogers
columbus, oh USA - Sunday, March 31, 2013 at 05:54:23 (PDT)
Take a VDG into a photo dark room. It glows purple with time. With many watching, eventually one gets too close. Sort of like a perverse spin the bottle. Discovered this by accident with students.
Bob Pearson
Philomath, OR USA - Wednesday, March 27, 2013 at 20:53:53 (PDT)
Why do people hate science?

But Jesus said: ?Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side. Do not disbelieve, but believe? (John 20.27).

We think that: ?Put your finger here and put out your hand? is the basis and the criteria of modern science; i.e., look with your eyes and touch with your hands.

My name is Angelo Bianchi, I am a researcher, from Italy.

Each language has its own etymology, Biblical Hebrew no, why? And yet Fabre Antoine d'Olivet discovered and published it in 1814.

Following the Napoleonic campaign in Egypt, and about twenty years before Champollion deciphered the Egyptian hieroglyphs, D'Olivet discovered that also the Hebraic language, using the characters of its alphabet, expressed the ancient Egyptian language. This is the (unacceptable) discovery. On this basis, i.e. the Egyptian hieroglyphic language, D'Olivet produced the etymological dictionary of the Hebraic language, and restored the Hebraic grammar from the serious alterations produced by the LXX.

These words that you are reading are written in English. We can translate them into Braille or into Morse code. The means we used to write the message has changed but the language, the idiom, is still the same, the English language. Similarly, with the Greek characters the Copts expressed the Egyptian hieroglyphics. Instead of hieroglyphs or demotic, the message is expressed by way of other characters, the characters of the Greek language. D'Olivet discovered that also the Hebraic language, using the characters of its alphabet, expressed the ancient Egyptian language.

Every honor goes to Antoine Fabre d'Olivet. We have only added further studies to his great work, with a software for biblical studies and new scientific knowledge, unconceivable in the early 19th century.

In the new translation only the most complex ideas and concepts have been restored, while the simplest ones have remained almost unchanged.

If this new translation is fascinating for you and if you think that it should be studied more thoroughly, please see all our work, six years of work: Nine chapters of the Creation in the restored translation and interlinear translation; the etymological root vocabulary, notes and explanations, etc., in the website

Thus, now, Faith and Science can coexist.

I beg you, I beg you to spread it among your universities, in your country!

Do you rememeber Galileo Galilei? He was condamned; do you remember Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis? He died in a mental hospital, etc.

Sapere aude!

Please give me whichever answer, your opinion, your judgment Angelo, Italy
Angelo Bianchi, Italy
Italy - Sunday, March 24, 2013 at 06:51:33 (PDT)

Hey nice resource - glad I stop by.
Free Stuff
USA - Wednesday, March 13, 2013 at 20:37:14 (PDT)
Love your site! I am looking to explain Joule, watt, fluence and amp in a very simple and elementary way for a laser didactic curriculum. Help!?!? :)
scottsdale, az USA - Tuesday, March 05, 2013 at 13:01:46 (PST)
Bill, Thanks for helping to make the Let's Build a Goddam Tesla Museum campaign last fall. Your mini-coils were a big hit, and we are grateful for your contribution of them. I have had a few people ask if they could still get one, and I wondered if I could purchase a few more from you. If you don't have any left to sell, could you advise me on where the best source is for obtaining a few? I'll look forward to hearing from you. Thanks again. Jane
Jane Alcorn
Shoreham, NY USA - Friday, March 01, 2013 at 15:45:07 (PST)
Hello, just want to say thank you, I did the simple ac generator for my daughter's school project, it works perfect. I bought exact materials n followed instructions, thnx :)
Starling B.
Van Nuys, CA USA - Saturday, January 26, 2013 at 20:54:13 (PST)
Have a loop antenna transmitting at low frequency..coupled with a smaller loop antenna. Which I guess means both share the transmitting's antenna stored energy or Q,an electromagnetic field. While I know distance and such causes loss dont want to fuss on that right now. BUT say I have a loop antenna If my non-transmitting antenna that is coupled with the other loop antenna..suddenly starts transmitting..what does that do?
hampton, va USA - Wednesday, January 23, 2013 at 12:10:32 (PST)
Thank you Mr. Beaty. I'm trying to teach myself while teaching my kids ages 13 & 14 about electronics. In 1964 I was trying to teach myself electronics and had very little information (a couple of books.) Today, we have the Internet and very generous people such as yourself. We really appreciate your work and art of teaching. It's my opinion that to really know you must teach. You obviously know. Thank you again!
Bill Parsons
Redding, CA USA - Monday, January 21, 2013 at 01:34:26 (PST)
sigorta yap?an nakliyat firmalar?hangileridir merak edenlere bilgiler istanbulda (evden eve nakliyat istanbul firmas?
evden eve nakliyat
istanbul, 34746 TR - Wednesday, January 16, 2013 at 00:38:08 (PST)
Hi i saw your articale on 3D magnetic field and i would like to ask would the steel wool always need to be shook so hard for it to seperate? And would i need to shake it hard too when they have settled to the bottom. I am trying to build something similar but only with a acryllic cylinder and is fixed to something, the only thing i can do is rotate it so i can't keep shaking it that hard. If anyone has any answer please email me at Thanks alot.
singapore - Monday, January 07, 2013 at 07:01:49 (PST)
Please come back and save the vortex-l email list from Jojo Jaro the Vicious Troll. We need your moderation.
[Following of hunches, listening for divine inspiration, obeying commands of my subconscious, I wrote numerous warning messages but couldn't send a single one. It was 'just wrong.' Finally I decided to stop all such mystical crap and clamp down on vortex-L. Before I could do so, 1.) my car keys disappeared for half a day, 2.) My car battery died, 3.) I acquired food poisoning or stomach flu & was in bed 2days. When I finally recovered and got to a computer, it seemed that my subconscous had had its own plans, and had been using my acute infection to cure a ...chronic one. If I hadn't been bedridden, I'd have come in shooting, and messed it all up! -billb]
Vortex-L Reader
USA - Wednesday, January 02, 2013 at 22:52:30 (PST)

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