Electricity Questions


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dear Mr. Bill
i'm glad to read about electricity because i'm searching for simple english texts to teach students who are specialized in the field of electricity, if you have any,please forward them
best regards

albaraa <kawsar_00 asgn hotmail dt com>
lebanon - Friday, October 15, 2010 at 10:47:04 (PDT)

what is happening when you move your feet across your sheets and you see sparks
Julia <julia.tesch24 asgn gmail dt com>
Surrey, Canada - Tuesday, October 12, 2010 at 18:21:56 (PDT)
My property backs up to another about 3 acres away. Every time they goes to service the lines, they drive across my property. My property just gets back to normal, then here they come again. My question is: why can't they use the other property to access the poles? All I have on my property is the ugly lines.
Christine Perry <christineperry asgn rocketmail dt com>
Covington, la USA - Wednesday, October 06, 2010 at 16:27:37 (PDT)
Is there anyway to stop interference in a radio when you live next to a hospital? I am assuming it is all the equipment they have in the hospital.
Shirley Perona <shirley.perona asgn sbcglobal dt net>
Lake Geneva, WI USA - Saturday, October 02, 2010 at 09:54:18 (PDT)
Why clearance between transmission line conductors is not same..????
i-e. the distance between phase A and phase B of transmission line is not same as distance between phase B and phase C of transmission line, why..??????

Imtiaz Hussain <imtiazh2008 asgn yahoo dt com>
Rawalpindi, Punjab Pakistan - Sunday, September 26, 2010 at 07:04:21 (PDT)
If you have a 400 amp single phase disconnect with 200 amps on one leg and 200 amps on the other leg, does this circuit have 200 amps or 400 amps total? Basically, do you add amps from each leg of a circuit to get total amps?
USA - Wednesday, September 22, 2010 at 18:13:52 (PDT)
I like to do woodworking and use electric sanders quite often. I have many sanders and have noticed that after "logging" several hours of use, the motors start running much faster. This is not good. The motor goes so much faster than normal that it cannot be used for fear of wood damage. I know this sounds crazy. It is either the sanders or what?
I hope you have some idea as to what the problem might be.
Could it be in the wiring of the electrical supply?
S. Varner

susan <elisa0my asgn gmail dt com???>
lake wales, fl USA - Wednesday, September 22, 2010 at 15:54:16 (PDT)
i have a buzzing in my apliances like the stove and my bedroom light i did take down a couple lights in the basement and rewired it i dont know mabey i crossed somthing would this make the buzzing
tim <tkj401 asgn yahoo dt com>
muskegon, mi USA - Wednesday, September 08, 2010 at 19:38:35 (PDT)
why is it necessary for a generator action that the electromagnetic torque should oppose the direction of rotation of alternator
mukund kumar <mukund.kumar07 asgn gmail dt com>
patiala, punjab india - Thursday, September 02, 2010 at 00:02:30 (PDT)
why tester glow even if we are wearing shoes?

john <john6cena asgn gmail dt com>
delhi, delhi india - Wednesday, August 18, 2010 at 09:52:56 (PDT)
I have LED candle that uses 4 AA batteries. I want to convert the candle and hook up to my landscape lighting line, which is 12V, converted using transformer w/ house 120V line.

Can I just attached wire to candle terminal to the 12V line?

Thank you.

quang <quanghtran asgn yahoo dt com>
cerritos, ca USA - Tuesday, August 10, 2010 at 13:51:00 (PDT)
Enjoyed reading your notes on electricity, especially that part which describes that energy flows through the electromagnetic field surrounding a conductor. My Sears & Zimansky describes this process and provides a sample calculation for a coaxial cable.

But what about energy flow in high voltage transfer lines? Typically such lines consist of three pairs of conductors for polyphase tranmission. Why are there pairs with each phase? Is the charge in each line in a pair at the same location (vertical slice) the same or different? Can you suggest a source for the caculation procedure (using fields) for paired high voltage conductors?

Thanks, JD

john dickie
USA - Friday, August 06, 2010 at 11:49:10 (PDT)
could someone please tell the name of the electronic device which converts friction to electricity.and is there any specific name for the device which converts friction developed due to walk to electricity?

priyadharshini <priya170692 asgn gmail dt com>
chennai, tn india - Friday, July 30, 2010 at 06:28:03 (PDT)
please help i got this question the other day at school, what is meant by saying: a large current flows in the conductor?
thank you very much

brandon <sling asgn vodamail.co.za>
witbank, south africa - Wednesday, July 28, 2010 at 07:48:10 (PDT)
How we can make the calcul of the amperes between a generator have the output of 60kva 3phases & a generator 60kva single phase,please if you can put the formula.

naji <najikar63 asgn hotmail dt com>
USA - Wednesday, July 21, 2010 at 10:49:16 (PDT)
If I blow my nose in the dark I can see sparks. Is this electrical current? Or my brain and eyes playing tricks on me? I was using Kleenex when I saw this. I never thought to look it up even though I have noticed this since I was a kid. I am now in my 40's. Thanks for any help with this question. Also, if it really is sparks, could it set off an explosion if flammable vapors are present?
Fred <Hatefulfrd asgn aol dt com>
Ca USA - Sunday, July 18, 2010 at 02:03:10 (PDT)
i diconected an old dryer and appently did't turn off the electricity sparks happened and my son got shocked we hooked up the new dryer with all the elecfticity off) now we seem to hove no electric comming through the wires should i be worryed
cathy <cathyk815 asgn yahoo dt comxxxxx>
Philadelphia, PA USA - Saturday, July 10, 2010 at 18:28:45 (PDT)
i diconected an old dryer and appently did't turn off the electricity sparks happened and my son got shocked we hooked up the new dryer with all the elecfticity off) now we seem to hove no electric comming through the wires should i be worryed
cathy <cathyk815 asgn yahoo dt com>
Philadelphia, PA USA - Saturday, July 10, 2010 at 18:27:59 (PDT)
jonelle <nhelzkie_14 asgn yahoo dt com>
pampanga, USA - Saturday, June 19, 2010 at 22:52:26 (PDT)
I created a basic LED driver circuit. I put the resistor after the LED to reduce the current to a safe level. After I did that, I began to think: If current flows from the (-) to (+) how can the resistor which is AFTER the LED reduce the flow of electricity?

Circuit goes: from (-) to LED to resistor to (+).

Thank you.

USA - Tuesday, June 15, 2010 at 08:11:07 (PDT)
Hi. Great site!
I was wondering what is different about LEDs that makes the light from a light bulb seem constant, but the light from an LED seems to be slow. i.e. if an LED is moved swiftly passed ones eye, it appears to be flashing. Do you know what I'm talking about?

Jayd Lawrence
From South Africa

Jayd Lawrence <pythonjayd asgn yahoo dt com>
PMB, KZN RSA - Tuesday, June 15, 2010 at 04:30:57 (PDT)
How do you get the amp. on a electric hot water maker.
kevin <khenry1020 asgn verizon dt net>
carmel, n.y. USA - Friday, May 14, 2010 at 04:26:24 (PDT)
If I want to conect five fixtures in the same circuit each driven by three 1.5 AA batteries what do I have to increse the voltage to 22.5 volts or the amps.
Alejandro <alejohh asgn yahoo dt com>
Edinburg, TX USA - Friday, April 23, 2010 at 21:35:49 (PDT)
The previous owner of my home somehow electrified the bird feeder to keep squirrels off. I want to reactivate it. There is a strategically placed piece of metal mesh on the 8 ft. pole that holds the feeder with one electrical wire and one ground wire attached. The electrical wire is a single wire, not the two-wire versions I'm used to for alternating current. What do I do with what he rigged? Can I attach a battery?
Thanks, L.

Laura Wright <lpwright asgn austin.rr dt com>
Austin, TX USA - Thursday, April 22, 2010 at 08:27:21 (PDT)
what is the basics of house wiring. Please Illustrate the switch board , meter box, and connection of all house goods.
S.Dhanasekaran <vsdhanasekaran asgn yahoo dt com>
Pondicherry, Pondicherry India - Thursday, April 22, 2010 at 04:01:11 (PDT)
Shall we produce current from air flow. Is this possible to produce current from a traveling vehicle (its body). It is possible to invent By flowing air through our mouth.
S.Dhanasekaran <vsdhanasekaran asgn yahoo dt com>
Pondicherry, Pondicherry India - Thursday, April 22, 2010 at 03:56:11 (PDT)
Describe in detail the maintenance checks you would perform on a 15kV three-phase station regulator
Robert <stoneygranite asgn yahoo dt com>
USA - Monday, April 19, 2010 at 20:35:45 (PDT)
Describe in detail the procedures/practices you would use to inspect/maintain a 15kV open-air vacuum breaker including de-energizing the breaker, personal protective equipment, maintenance checks, and test equipment.
Robert <stoneygranite asgn yahoo dt com>
USA - Monday, April 19, 2010 at 20:33:29 (PDT)
Does a good source of electricity have more protons or electrons?
les <lespage asgn hotmail dt com>
edmonton, ab Canada - Saturday, April 17, 2010 at 11:31:53 (PDT)
in 3 phase line of 220 vlts each we connect tha 2 forbes of multimeter on 2 phase what it give output?
shadab <shadabraza21 asgn yahoo dt com>
kolkata, west bengal india - Thursday, April 15, 2010 at 07:24:06 (PDT)
how much power can (amperage) can you run off a 100 amp single phase 208 volt panel
bruce <blink1 asgn bloomberg dt net>
smithtown , ny USA - Thursday, April 15, 2010 at 06:10:37 (PDT)
Why do batteries only produce direct current
Hannah <katrinatubby asgn yahoo dt co dt uk>
USA - Thursday, April 15, 2010 at 03:30:13 (PDT)
How many time can elctricity flow 7770 kilometers in one second?
Molly Carter
USA - Wednesday, April 07, 2010 at 14:09:57 (PDT)
If the reason birds don't get electricuted by landing on powerlines due to the current would rather travel through the copper wires, why is it that humans do?
Brandy <bstrate asgn mohawkpalace. dt com>
Fort Covington , NY USA - Thursday, March 11, 2010 at 06:47:51 (PST)
I've been reading all about what electricity isn't and why..so what is it???
Is this like asking exactly what EXACTLY energy is?

Ashley McPhillips <amcphillips asgn bcbe dt org>
Fairhope, AL USA - Sunday, March 07, 2010 at 10:17:39 (PST)
i have a new electric cooking ceramic top that works at 220 volt ac. my problem is that i cannot receive more than 198 volts ac due to problems that cannot be resolved by the provider. the appliance will not work under 205 volts. æis there a reasonable fix for this? i´m using 2 115 volts that read when measured using neutral but when i mesure the 2 lines together i only get 198 v. i cant get refunded for the appliance.

thank for any suggestion.

john craciun

john craciun <johnniecraciun asgn hotmail dt com>
caracas, venezuela - Tuesday, March 02, 2010 at 11:13:51 (PST)
What wattage would be required to supply a 200 amp service in the average residential home.
Craig <cchacgeo asgn yahoo dt com>
Huntingdon, PA USA - Tuesday, March 02, 2010 at 08:51:54 (PST)
This is a wonderful Web site. I've really enjoyed reading it and I've added a lot to my knowledge of electricity and its use in my home. This has led me to wonder...how can I tell if my electrical circuits are really grounded without tearing up the floorboards? And further, is it a given that those three-pronged outlets are grounded? These may seem like elemental questions, but I bought a house from a man who fancied himself an electrician!
Susan <sejcookxxx asgn gmail dt com>
Lake Forest Park, WA USA - Sunday, February 28, 2010 at 11:06:24 (PST)
I have a different issue. What type of device when powered on by a remote can make a bed feel like it's moving beneath you; the comforter moves like something is traveling in it; the pillows and pillowcases do the same. I have felt a slight zap when this happens, and my heart and pulse race. I am trying to find out what it is and where it is in my house. Do you have any ideas?
Be-Be <rytteplace asgn yahoo dt com>
FL USA - Thursday, February 25, 2010 at 10:05:46 (PST)
how does a dynamo produce electricity?
jamie <jamie-lee14 asgn hotmail dt co dt uk>
cambridge, U.K - Wednesday, January 27, 2010 at 10:17:22 (PST)
Why should not we give ac current instead of dc current.

reply to my email pleasssssssssss...........

srikanth <srikanth5550 asgn gmail dt com>
vijayawada, ap INDIA - Tuesday, January 26, 2010 at 17:36:30 (PST)
Who invented the american electrical outlet (3 prong)? Why can I not find this information on via "search engines", I received "John Howard" but yet found no info on him? " just political" Is this a question that's not typical?
any way. If you have this information please do share. Just a curious mind. love the warnings, to bad people don't read! too funny you got me twice!!!

USA - Monday, January 25, 2010 at 20:40:39 (PST)
I have a elecric transmission line approx. 100ft. from my house,how can I draw electric from the air and backfeed into my house.
jim scharf <jscharf3 asgn comcast dt net>
randallstown, md USA - Saturday, January 23, 2010 at 20:47:26 (PST)
Why does a pen tester work on the black or "hot wire" But not the neutral. I know the neutral is grounded but i don't understand?
Bob <bobhook149 asgn yahoo dt com>
USA - Saturday, January 23, 2010 at 11:21:32 (PST)
when we receive the call which type of current flow AC OR DC???????
saqib <saaki87_ali asgn yahoo dt com>
islamabad, pakistan - Thursday, January 21, 2010 at 00:14:28 (PST)
Which metal gets hotter when put in touch with electricity?
Jorge Perez <i_huy asgn hotmail dt com>
arlington , va USA - Wednesday, January 20, 2010 at 16:18:39 (PST)
My name is Stevie, I am 12 years old and am entering my very first science fair. I have a love for science, and want to be a Physics Professor one day. I have an interest in the "World's Easiest Electric Generator." The only thing that I strongly dislike is the fact that the science fair is in an enclosed gym. I would really love to do the Generator, and I really wan to win. I wanted to know if the judges would be able to see the light. I'm really excited!

Stevie Ferguson <runnergurl.10.xc asgn gmail dt com>
MS USA - Saturday, January 16, 2010 at 10:43:23 (PST)
PLanning to buy Chicago Power Tools 4.8-Volt cordless Compact Drill/Driver Set,which comes with a charger.Plannig to send the same to my parents back in India.Wanted to know can i use the same charger or will have to buy a different adapter for charging the cordless drill set
Sandeep <sga_sandy asgn yahoo dt com>
Allentown, PA USA - Wednesday, January 13, 2010 at 17:35:47 (PST)
Why the same sign ends of a battery do not repel each other?
apex <vmapex asgn gmail dt com>
USA - Sunday, January 10, 2010 at 21:49:00 (PST)
My Question is "What will happen if I feed 12Volt DC in a small pond pump" It came with a transformer which I can use but as our house runs on 12 volt DC with an inverter for 240 volt AC this is very inefficent. Thanks for your time
Max Herron <maxherron asgn yahoo dt com>
Deloraine, Tas Australia - Saturday, January 02, 2010 at 12:03:54 (PST)
1.will you please explain to me how inductors work?
2.why is the ac output 180 degree out of phase at the collector when the transistor is in CE mode?
3.how do the oscillators generate oscillations in the tank circuit on their own with the help of "noise"?
I am an engineering student. So with these and many more doubts in mind it becomes difficult to understand things in the right manner. If I don't understand these basic concepts then it will be extremely difficult to understand the topics that come in the next semester. I want to really know how everything works. So I request you to please help me in the process of clearing my doubts.
will be waiting for your answer.

samyukta <samyuktahegde asgn yahoo dt com>
mangalore, karnataka india - Friday, December 25, 2009 at 07:12:48 (PST)
on a high voltage circuit you can connect two red phases from a different substations and nothing will happen, the same applies to medium voltage, but in a low voltage circuit if you connect fuses on different substations but on the same phase the fuses blows or the conductor will burn, what causes that conductor to burn or fuses to blow?
musa ngonie <ngoniet asgn yahoo dt com>
pietermaritzburg, kzn rsa - Thursday, December 10, 2009 at 05:33:54 (PST)
on a hugh voltage circuit you can connect two red phases from a diiferent substations and nothing will happen, the same applies to medium voltage, but in a low voltage circuit if you put fuses on different substations but on the same phase the fuses blows or the conductor will burn, what causes that conductor to burn or fuses to blow?
musa ngonie <ngoniet asgn yahoo dt com>
pietermaritzburg, kzn rsa - Thursday, December 10, 2009 at 05:32:39 (PST)
Earthing in the Cabinets, What is the difference between IE and PE ? what about the earthing in the Ships ?

anbu <anbujove asgn live dt com>
chennai, Tamil Nadu INDIA - Monday, November 30, 2009 at 22:01:37 (PST)
Does power lines can realy cause car batteries to die completly or go low?
nini creekbaum <ninicreek66 asgn yahoo dt com>
marrero, la USA - Saturday, November 28, 2009 at 12:50:36 (PST)
You said no electrons flow through the body.
[ No, I said that the electric current in human flesh (and in salt water, and in battery acid) is entirely made of flows of charged atoms. In pure salt water, electric current is made of negative chlorine atoms (chloride ions) which flow towards the positive meter lead, and also positive sodium atoms (sodium ions) flowing the other way. Why is your flesh conductive in the first place? Because it's full of charged atoms which can move around! In human tissues there are also potassium ions and lots of other stuff. But bare electrons cannot exist for more than nanoseconds in electrolyte solutions. -billb]

This I dont get, grab a digital meters probes, one in each hand and you get a reading showing electrons are coming out one hand going into the negative probe of the meter and doing the reverse on the positive with the other hand. [ Yep, and chemistry is happening where the metal probes touch your skin. For example, at the positive probe, electrons are being yanked out of sodium atoms and into the metal probe, leaving sodium ions that then flow off into your saltwater flesh. But also the water molecules there are being split so that positive hydrogen ions flow off away from the metal, while oxygen atoms combine to form dissolved O2 gas. More stuff is happening over at the negative end. Think of it this way: electric charge in the metal is made of electrons, but when it dives into salt water, it's chemically converted into positive and negative atoms which flow in opposite directions. -billb ] Now take a small meter connected one side to a battery, then connect the other side of the meter to a wire that goes to a sticky electrode connected to the foot. Now take the other side of the battery connected to a wire and another sticky electrode and connect that to your head, and the meter shows electron flow going through the body,,say from foot to head. If this was not actual electron flow going through the body,,even through the skin,,then the battery would never drain and it would run seemingly forever. But since the meter shows electron flow, meaning going out the negative, through the body and back into the positive of the battery, electron flow did happen, and it went through the human body. Perhaps I misunderstood something, but this shows electron flow does travel through the body, meaning electrons went in say the foot and came out the head in the above example, regardless what chemical reactions happened in the body while it happened.
steve <stevensrd1 asgn yahoo dt com>
nc USA - Saturday, November 28, 2009 at 12:19:25 (PST)

ST.LOUIS, MO USA - Monday, November 23, 2009 at 10:49:08 (PST)
I found an old (90s) multi-disk changer CD player without a power cord. On the bottom of the unit it says 0.20A 60Hz 120V. The unit takes a non-polarized 2 prong plug. I have found that my hand mixer (70s vintage) has the right size plug, but the mixer says 120V 60Hz 160W. The hand mixer would be 1.333A asgn 160W and the CD player says 0.20A asgn 24W (if I'm figuring this out correctly). I don't know if this can be regulated by the fuse/fuses? in the CD player?

Is it safe to use this power cord on the CD player?

Vicki <vhtourti asgn up dt net>
MI USA - Friday, November 20, 2009 at 19:47:20 (PST)
is there a device to make a light bulb burn out at a distance?
Bird <saso34 asgn hotmail dt com>
USA - Wednesday, November 18, 2009 at 22:41:18 (PST)
What is the most common way of making electrical connections?
USA - Tuesday, November 17, 2009 at 17:14:22 (PST)
I ask someone once before this question yet they left me still with no real answer. I read every electron that leaves a battery negative, returns in the battery positive. That much I get. But then I read up on ionizers, which emit electrons or add them to particles in the air, creating either negative ions or making particles clump together and fall to the ground, so they say. Now here is where I get confused, if a battery operated ionizer is at work,,and its emitting electrons into the air, these electrons come from its circuit, which includes the battery. So then if the battery is losing electrons in this fashion,,then every electron that leaves the positive of the battery is not returning to the negative. Furthermore I can take an ionizer, connected to a wire, put the wire in say a bowl of water, run the ionizer for an hour, remove the wire, turn the ionizer off, and touch the bowl of water and feel a slight tingle, a little zap,,where the water charged up or stored electrons from the ionizer. Do you see how confusing it is, they say one thing,,yet this proves another thing.
stephen <stevesrd1 asgn yahoo dt comm>
glade, nc USA - Tuesday, November 17, 2009 at 13:11:47 (PST)
This is a question, not a comment. I would like an answer please. How is a 400 kV line planned?

Would appreciate your response.


Jennifer Alphonso <jenalp asgn gmail dt com>
Mumbai, Mah India - Tuesday, November 17, 2009 at 00:09:33 (PST)
when a battery is connected to a complete circuit, charges flow in the circuit almsot instantaneously. why?
USA - Sunday, November 08, 2009 at 15:40:35 (PST)
Can someone please tell me why 6V batteries are bigger than 9V batteries????
Mitch Devriendt <mailmoogle11 asgn yahoo dt com>
WI USA - Friday, November 06, 2009 at 16:37:17 (PST)
Why is it that ten 1.5volts batteries that also amounts to 15volts cannot be combined to start a car that a single 15volts can?
Eneotu Maclean Jacob <maco4eva2002 asgn yahoo dt com>
port harcourt, RIVERS Nigeria - Friday, November 06, 2009 at 08:08:51 (PST)
Hi. Can you tell me if it is any more dangerous to plug in a lamp (or any electronic) when it is turned ON versus when it is turned OFF? I was taught when I was a child to always turn things off before unplugging them, because plugging the in while they are on increases the chance of shock. Is this true or is is a 'wives tale"?
Thank you.

Liz <Lizblueeyes asgn gmail dt com>
monticello, NY USA - Wednesday, November 04, 2009 at 17:13:00 (PST)
1.Will you please explain to me why a capacitor acts as an open circuit when supplied with DC.
2. Please tell me how inductors actually work. In spite of spending hours together to understand the concept, I've not been able to form a mental picture as to how they really work.
I really need your help.

Samyukta <samyuktahegde asgn yahoo dt com>
Mangalore, Karnataka India - Tuesday, November 03, 2009 at 06:41:21 (PST)
Dear Sir or madam

My circuit breaker keeps tripping. It can trip after few minutes or after several hours after being switch on. It trips even when all the devices in my room are disconnected and the lights are off.

I would like to understand why it trips so irregularly and if this could be dangerous.

Yours sincerely

Mr Lorenzo Garcia

Lorenzo Garcioa <id330uk asgn yahoo dt co dt uk>
London, UK - Thursday, October 29, 2009 at 07:52:27 (PDT)
I want to know how dangerous it could be for someone to spray water at or in the vicinity of overhead high-voltage cables or a sub-station. The water would most often be atomized or misted into droplets by the time it reached the electrical source.
J Smith
USA - Wednesday, October 28, 2009 at 18:10:45 (PDT)
HELP!!! We are trying to help my Grandson build a working model for his science fair. We are trying to build a device that will generate electricity by ocean waves. We are planning on attaching to the bottom of the buoy a magnet shaped like a washer to slide up and down on a stationary anchored coiled copper wire inside of a copper tube. Hopefully we will get a reading from a volt meter from the end of the wire that will be sticking up out of the tube, proving that we can build a model that can generate electricity with the motion of ocean waves. Our questions are what length and gage of copper wire should we use, what size copper tube should we put it inside of, how many times should we coil the wire, and how strong of a magnet do we need? And anything else you think we need to help this become a success.


Lynn Keifer <dcs1030 asgn hotmail dt com>
USA - Friday, October 23, 2009 at 10:16:51 (PDT)
Can you tell me the detail of the average A/C generator in a power station. What magnets are used. What is their strength. How many turns of what wire are used. What are the dimensions of the rotor/stator. What is the raw voltage/current/frequency that comes from such a generator? Is the motion of the rotor steady? How do they achieve a steady turning of the rotor?
Rob <robert_whitmarsh asgn hotmail,com>
Melbourne, USA - Wednesday, October 14, 2009 at 03:46:28 (PDT)
In Pakistan most of in distribution system wood stick are used for separation, when there is rain, and wood become wet, than why it not short circuit the wires/distribution system.
ziaulhaq <ziaulhaq81 asgn yahoo dt com>
islamabad, Paunjab Pakistan - Sunday, October 11, 2009 at 01:30:06 (PDT)
Does it use more electric turning a light on and off rather than leaving it on then shutting it off after few hours?
Ele <0aq150 asgn otda.state.ny.us>
Waterford, NY USA - Wednesday, September 23, 2009 at 06:55:39 (PDT)
Not a homework ?. How do you know which way to go (L or R)concerning the decimal (ohms law)? Is there a hint in the actual equation to indicate this eg A=mA? I thought if it was kilo, mega,giga go left. We had to run out of class quick so I didn't get chance to ask.

Jay Soto

Jay Soto <sotoj60610 asgn gmail dt com>
Chicago, IL USA - Sunday, September 06, 2009 at 08:04:17 (PDT)
In a series circuit, how do the charged particles 'know'if there is only one bulb, or multiple and hence know to share their electrical energy between them?
Tom <tommy_cam91 asgn hotmail dt com>
USA - Tuesday, September 01, 2009 at 19:42:50 (PDT)
Hello. I appreciate your maintenance of this wonderful electricity website. I've a question pertaining to the fundamentals of electric power generation:

Consider a simple, closed circuit containing only a source of voltage and a single resistor. In a typical setting, the magnitude of the voltage depends solely on the nature of the source so we'll consider it to be a fixed parameter of our model. By Ohm's law, then, the current in the circuit depends only on the resistor and, by Joule's law, the rate at which energy is dissipated by the circuit is inversely proportional to its resistance. The smaller the resistance, the more watts consumed by the circuit.

It seems clear to me that, if the voltage source is something like a battery or a charged capacitor, then smaller resistance means that the excess charge will flow more quickly from the source's positive terminal, and the store of potential energy will be depleted faster.

However, I don't understand how this works in the case where the source of voltage is something like a turbine generator propelled by a stream of fluid. I could be convinced that a less resistive circuit allows the turbine to turn more freely and absorb more kinetic energy from the passing stream of fluid but, even if this is the case, the power plant isn't going to burn reactor fuel any more quickly. Is it the case that a power plant like the ones on a mains grid consumes energy at a constant rate regardless of its output?

My rambling may have deviated somewhat from the scope of your interest, but I'll submit it anyway.

Thank you for your time.

Matthew Coolbeth <coolbeth (AT) gmail (PERIOD) com>
Ashford, CT USA - Friday, August 28, 2009 at 12:17:56 (PDT)
what is the name of the device which can store an electricity
sudarshan <sudharshangdarshan asgn gmail dt com>
mysore, karnataka india - Thursday, August 27, 2009 at 02:58:08 (PDT)
Wow, you are a nitpicker! This is exactly the type of teaching we need to advance science properly. "Sloppy science" is not good enough for really serious advancement of our understanding of things.

Sometimes we are held back by the way we have to express things, and we don't even become aware of it. Your exposing of the misconceptions we carry will help to free us of these burdens.

In my field, Resistance Welding, I constantly run into misconceptions causing the people working with this process to never achieve the results they want. When I get contracted to cure the problems, usually it is an exercize in finding and clearing up the misconception, and that is all that was required to make the problem go away!

Clear simple thinking, is as rare as common sense. I applaud your ability to clarify these concepts, keep it up, we need you. Thanks for your work.

David Bacon <dbacon asgn wowway dt com>
Shelby Township, MI USA - Tuesday, August 18, 2009 at 09:44:04 (PDT)
Sorry, didn't give email the first time b/c I thought this was a forum :) Resending...

Hey, not sure if this forum is intended for specific questions or not but looking for some help if it's available. I don't know much about electricity, but I'm trying to figure out if I need to purchase additional electricity for a booth I will be running at a convention center. My booth is given (1) 1000watts, 120V outlet for free. If my internet searching has helped at all, that means I'm getting about 8amps from that outlet. Great, but not ultimately helpful to me. What I really want to find out is can I just use that one free outlet and a surge protector to power all 5 devices for my booth: (2) 22" TVs, (2) XBOX 360s, and a laptop? Thanks!!

John <johnjohn1234 asgn hotmail dt com>
USA - Friday, August 14, 2009 at 13:22:47 (PDT)
Hey, not sure if this forum is intended for specific questions or not but looking for some help if it's available. I don't know much about electricity, but I'm trying to figure out if I need to purchase additional electricity for a booth I will be running at a convention center. My booth is given (1) 1000watts, 120V outlet for free. If my internet searching has helped at all, that means I'm getting about 8amps from that outlet. Great, but not ultimately helpful to me. What I really want to find out is can I just use that one free outlet and a surge protector to power all 5 devices for my booth: (2) 22" TVs, (2) XBOX 360s, and a laptop? Thanks!!
USA - Friday, August 14, 2009 at 13:13:51 (PDT)
I have really enjoyed reading through the pages of your website.
From your articles, I could visualise how a charge ’travels’ along the wire and therefore imagined how ‘electricity’ looks like/ works like.
I am wondering if you can help me to visualise energy. I just need a model to ‘understand’ what energy is.

Claude Enache <cenache asgn surreycricket dt com>
UK - Friday, August 07, 2009 at 06:38:54 (PDT)
About the question:
What's the difference between ELECTRIC CHARGE and ELECTRIC CURRENT?

I see no difference, those are two manifestations of the same "kind of stuff".
ELECTROSTATIC deals with HIGH impedances circuits
ELECTRIC CURRENT deals with LOW impedances circuits

BERCHET J-PAUL <pol.bctAROBASEwanadoo.fr>
St DENIS, REUNION ISLAND - Thursday, August 06, 2009 at 11:14:35 (PDT)
I like to know why in one electric circuit, the electric flow is very low, the electricity is there, but the bulbs dont turn on please ansewer my cuestion im a retired man thank you for your time.
Abel Martinez <rokebugy asgn yahoo dt com>
El Paso, tx USA - Tuesday, August 04, 2009 at 13:32:36 (PDT)
a device that cuts off electicity flow when critical?
ali <sham.sham5212 asgn yahoo dt com>
ahvaz, iran - Thursday, July 30, 2009 at 04:17:05 (PDT)
I am puzzled as to how you decide which material becomes positive and which negative when two materials are in contact to cause charge movement in the subject of static electricity
Ralph <rmiddlemass asgn hotmail dt co dt uk>
Livingston, UK - Wednesday, July 29, 2009 at 03:33:10 (PDT)
Why are you safe in a car with a downed power line fallen on it? I have just learned it is NOT because the rubber tires act as insulators, but I can't find out why. Thanks
Diana Badger <badgebor asgn mcn dt org>
Sebastopol, CA USA - Wednesday, July 22, 2009 at 18:37:37 (PDT)
I have a sump pump that requires the censor's plug to be inserted into back of the motor (pump's plug). Why is this necessary. Repairman said that if you plug them into the outlet seperately one of them will not shut off properly. Why? Thanks, Tom Morrow
Tom Morrow <t.morrow asgn AccessExplorationCorp dt com>
houston, tx USA - Monday, July 20, 2009 at 17:52:35 (PDT)
Hey i got a question involving a closed circuit i believe in my parents bedroom. the light switch in there is behind a door and the light is on a fan that has a pull switch. my mother believes that electricity is being used when the light is off on the fan but the switch is up. i believe that electricity is not bein used in this fashion, but she thinks that if they reach around there door everytime to turn the switch off it wnt use electricity. so my q is does the house use electricity when the switch is on, on the wall but the light turned out?
Tyler Pedersen <kronicpraiser asgn yahoo dt com>
colorado springs, CO USA - Thursday, July 16, 2009 at 10:27:39 (PDT)
my household outlets show 40 volts whats wrong.
kent <kentbstark asgn gmail dt com>
holden, mo USA - Saturday, July 11, 2009 at 11:14:52 (PDT)
why does my window ac unit pull 10 amps at the unit and only 8 amps at the breaker box. It is a 110 volt unit on a 20 amp breaker.
Charlie Watts <charliewatts asgn zoominternet dt net>
Huntington, WV USA - Thursday, July 09, 2009 at 18:36:24 (PDT)
What component(s)of an ac motor makes it a dc motor?
Ray <chopper10 asgn gmail dt com>
El Paso, TX USA - Tuesday, July 07, 2009 at 10:40:46 (PDT)
take out the stars in my email address. apparently i have to put them in? anyway, not a question. a comment. i clicked comments, and this came up, so this is what i am using. now, i'm going to get straight to the point. nearly all of the things you say arent true, are. what you do, is called splitting ends... or something. anyway, you are IDIOTS. what you do is like me saying: "my gerbil is a gerbil." and you saying, "NO! it isn't! you are all wrong! it is a MALE gerbil, and by saying it is just a gerbil you are wrong! WRONG, I TELL YOU!" ...UNDERSTAND? if i were you, i would just delete my website. thankyou, me.
theo <*robotic-boy* asgn *hotmail* dt com*>
maryborough, qld aus - Monday, July 06, 2009 at 04:14:07 (PDT)
I have a car Battery and I have hooked a 800 Watt (DC to AC) converter, which has two outlets. I want to hook a battery charger to one outlet to charge the battery while using the other outlet to run a table saw. Is this possible?
Anton K. Ciomperlik <antonkc asgn juno dt com>
San Antonio, TX USA - Sunday, July 05, 2009 at 10:45:25 (PDT)
I have a square D panel and there are a few spaces that have no circuit breaker in them,but there are these small finger like metal tabs in the slot(held in by 1/4 screw ,my question is why are they there and can I remove them and put another breaker there for a new circuit?
rich <f_rich asgn hotmail dt com>
Newark, NJ USA - Sunday, July 05, 2009 at 09:23:37 (PDT)
Dear Bill:
The typical on-line diagram explaining alternating current shows a "source" a "load" and a wire.
But my radio has a cord with two wires. Presumably, they complete the circuit when the switch is "on" but why can't we use just one wire as in the simple diagrams on line?
Do both wires carry a SINE wave with a 60 cycles/second?
Are both wires operating at 120 Volts (average)?
Is one wire carrying a positive charge and the other a negative charge?
I think I understand much of what I've read on line about electrical currents but these simple things confuse me.
Raphael Richman - Perpetual Student.

Raphael Richman <rrichman asgn rcn dt com>
New York, NY USA - Monday, June 29, 2009 at 18:56:43 (PDT)
I'm setting up a new manufacturing facility. The facility will be outfitted with bus way. I have capable and experienced plant maintenance folks on staff. Do I need an electrical contractor to plug in bus plugs and install electrical drops to equipment and benches? Do I need a permit for these "plug in" boxes?
Ken Wiglund <kwiglund asgn radiantpowercorp.c0m_no-spam-please_#$%$^#$.biz>
USA - Thursday, June 11, 2009 at 13:02:12 (PDT)
I love the site! But I have a quick question. I have a science project to due, and I can't find the answer to my question ANYWHERE! Can you please help! Ok, my question is, do electrons flow from the power plant to your house every time you turn a light on? I really need the answer! Thanks!
USA - Monday, June 08, 2009 at 12:45:17 (PDT)
there was this question in my last physics lesson that i still really do NOT understand. Why is it harder for electricity 2 pass through the filament in a bulb than its connecting cables?
Thanks a billion!!!!!!!!

Moli <molitirion>>> asgn gmail dt com>
CARDIFF, wales (or the uk) - Monday, June 08, 2009 at 11:41:12 (PDT)
Thank you for your fantastic information. I have a question regarding the transfer of electromagnetic energy. You mention that this em-energy is responsible for lighting a light bulb, but later you talk about friction due resistance in the filament. I understand that this friction causes the tungston atoms to vibrate, causing the electrons to make a higher orbit and emit photons. Can you explain how the em-energy is converted and lost to light energy in the process? Can you also let me know if there is a relationship between the voltage and the em-force with regards to electrical energy.
Kindest regards


Efrem Cockett <efrem.c asgn hbgroup dt com>
Guernsey, UK - Friday, June 05, 2009 at 07:46:06 (PDT)
RENATO BABAR <renatobabar asgn yahoo dt com>
USA - Friday, May 29, 2009 at 23:16:36 (PDT)
How can i tell what kind of phase of power do i have at home and at work. 1 phase 2 phase or 3 phase, I would like to buy a gererator to work for my house and restaurant.
Arthur Beaudet, Sr <Beaudet asgn bellsouth dt net>
Homestead, FL USA - Monday, May 25, 2009 at 18:06:45 (PDT)
In DC if we consider a battery or a source it is +5V and -5V . what does that -5V resemble. what does that + and - symbolize ?
Roberts <abilash001 asgn gmail dt com>
USA - Saturday, May 23, 2009 at 22:04:41 (PDT)
What is joules? And what is the relationship between joules, watts, amps, voltage and the like? Why are consumer products measured in joules and commercial products in amps or watts?

Nathan Bird

Nathan Bird <nathanbird asgn charter dt net############>
Sparks, NV USA - Tuesday, May 12, 2009 at 11:08:14 (PDT)
when we apply voltage to both ends of a wire directly, it is short circuited. but when we apply voltage across a coil, why it is not short circuited
hamidpatthan <hamidpatthan asgn yahoo dt com>
USA - Thursday, May 07, 2009 at 19:33:31 (PDT)
I found an underground black with that looks like the white ones in my attic. How can I tell if it is "hot" or not? One end goes into the concrete floor of my house and the other end heads out toward my yard area. Is there a tool that I can see if there is electricity going through this wire, and if so, what is it and how do I use it. I would like to find out on my own before I call the electrician.

Thanks for your reply.

Morgan Riley <mcr072555 asgn gmail dt com>
San Angelo, TX USA - Tuesday, April 28, 2009 at 19:04:54 (PDT)
i have three light fixtures hanging from my ceiling. one works, the other two don't. they have transformers which say input 120V AC Blk Whi, 60Hz and O/Put 12V, 26 VA Red-Red.

These are only 5 years old and rarely used. Any idea why they don't work. Transformers shot but only 5 years old and rarely used? Other ideas. thanks

john <john.cunningham asgn bp dt com>
clifton, nj USA - Monday, April 20, 2009 at 19:24:40 (PDT)
If you change the voltage of a baseboad heater from 120 to 240 will you get twice the 'Heat' at half the cost ?
Jamie <jvoskuil asgn rogers dt comXXXXXXX>
Toronto, ON Canada - Monday, April 20, 2009 at 17:29:07 (PDT)
hi i was wondering if I were able to hook my 220 volt tanning bed into my dryer outlit. If so, how? Thank you.
jennifer <lovergrl_15486 asgn Yahoo dt com>
belle vernon, pa USA - Sunday, April 19, 2009 at 10:00:49 (PDT)
six-tenths coulomb passes a point in 3s. What is the current in amperes?
huy <phamquochuy asgn usa dt com>
garden grove, ca USA - Saturday, April 18, 2009 at 01:22:14 (PDT)
we can generate high voltge with low currrent using an inductive circuit but thier is any circuit which produces high current with low voltage ?
sachin <sachinmahapurush asgn yahoo.co.in>
bangalore, karnataka INDIA - Thursday, April 16, 2009 at 21:41:19 (PDT)
hi..... i want to know its possible to separate an voltage and current separately ?
sachin <sachinmahapurush asgn yahoo.co.in>
bangalore, karnataka INDIA - Thursday, April 16, 2009 at 21:37:13 (PDT)
I am in the middle of doing a lighting project and have to control the lights with both a time clock and photo electric cell, with some N/O and N/c relays. The photo cell needs to bring all the lights on at dusk the time clock needs to switch 50% of them off at 01:30 then switch them back on to 100% at 04:30. There are 8 circuits of lights to be controlled. could you send me a diagram of how to do this. Thank you
Bill Dorton <william.dorton asgn btopenworld dt co dt uk>
London, UK - Wednesday, April 08, 2009 at 12:22:48 (PDT)
a/c can I usage diferent voltage capacitor
350Vac insted of 250Vac

Mario ventura <marioventura1964 asgn yahoo dt com>
phoenix, az USA - Friday, April 03, 2009 at 21:09:10 (PDT)
How can make Electercitiy and what is proccegar mail me plz

Ali Waqas <heart_of_lahore asgn yahoo,com>
lahore, punjab pakistan - Friday, April 03, 2009 at 20:44:16 (PDT)
Hi I hope you can help me, I purchased some expense machines called Hypoxi from a distributor in Australia, they imported them from Austria. They are made in europe and run on 230volts, they have blown 7 times. The readings are 253 volts by an electrican.
Is it because the voltage is too high? Should a converter have being installed. They cost me $750,000 and now they are blowing up and I think its the voltage. I have surge protectors on each unit.
Thank you for your help

Tracey Levick <tracey asgn bodydesigners dt com.au>
Australia - Thursday, April 02, 2009 at 18:33:26 (PDT)
when flowing of pvc resins thro a screen(for separate by sizes) at 65degree celcius, is get more electromagnetism? how can we control this?
p.gnanavel <pgnanavel80 asgn yahoo.co.in>
salem, tamilnadu india726 - Monday, March 23, 2009 at 22:58:25 (PDT)
My house is too old and the wiring has no color codes..How can I differenciate between the neutral and the ground wires??.. ..I am installing a new boiler but the old wires colors are faded...I already which one is the live or "hot" wire with an electrical tester.. but how to test which one is the real neutral and the real ground????
Thanks for your answer


ricardo <ninoricardo123 asgn yahoo dt com>
hempstead, ny USA - Friday, March 20, 2009 at 11:28:12 (PDT)
how does work Tube light?
Sumit <pink3252000 asgn gmail dt com>
Amreli, Gujarat india - Tuesday, February 24, 2009 at 21:21:46 (PST)
Can we give DC supply to 100W AC bulb?
Sumit <pink3252000 asgn gmail dt com>
Amreli, Gujarat india - Tuesday, February 24, 2009 at 21:18:38 (PST)
I'm looking for a schematic to build a 5V 3A power adapter but am having trouble finding one.

Does anyone have something like this?

Billy <bdobbs8-remove- asgn yahoo dt com>
USA - Monday, February 23, 2009 at 14:54:15 (PST)
why does a diode light?what it consists of?
nihit bhavsar <nihitb asgn yahoo.co.in>
mumbai, maharashtra india - Monday, February 23, 2009 at 06:12:26 (PST)
could you please explain in illustration, how electric current ( movement of charge) flow in AC and DC circuits?


Soon Thai

Soon Thai <chubee94 asgn hotmail dt com>
london, UK - Friday, February 20, 2009 at 04:08:21 (PST)
omg i hope u guys help me out wuth this question
jocelyn <flaky_24th asgn yahoo dt com>
chicago, ill USA - Thursday, February 19, 2009 at 14:39:44 (PST)
how is voltage generated?
USA - Wednesday, February 18, 2009 at 11:09:19 (PST)
what is the mean by a purely capacitive circuit?
nabila <Bee_biel21090 asgn yahoo dt com.my>
pontian, johor malaysia - Monday, February 16, 2009 at 02:33:06 (PST)
I have had high electric bills since we built the house that we're living in. I finally got consumers out here to do a meter test. When i shut the main breaker off to the house the meter continued to spin for several minutes then suddenly stopped. The meter man admitted that it wasn't right but they won't replace the meter because when he tested it with his equipment, it said the meter was reading 99.5% accurate???? He and I both saw the thing spinning after the main house breaker was shut off. How can it be that it would keep spinning?
We tried it several more times (turning the breaker on and off) and it didn't do it again! It is intermittent. He told me to check it again in a week! Our bills are about $150 a month too high and have been for 2 years. I would like to get to the bottom of this and have consumers credit me back the difference! Do you have any ideas?

Justina <partnerjb asgn aol dt com>
Whitehall, MI USA - Friday, February 06, 2009 at 10:05:03 (PST)
When the breaker trips and you have to turn it back on does that use a lot of electrity to do that and does it make your power bill increase everytime your breaker trips? and why does your breaker trip?
Cheryl <cheryl_moyah asgn hotmail dt com2@#A$>
Edmonton, USA - Saturday, January 31, 2009 at 20:46:48 (PST)
What is the relation between amperes and volts? I've been given two sets of values that contain volts and amperes. How do I find the relation between the two?
Yasar <yasar_faroh_ra asgn yahoo.ca>
London, ontario CANADA - Monday, January 19, 2009 at 06:26:49 (PST)
Is it possible to convert a single line voltage 220 - 230v into 11Kv using step up transformer? plz answer from basic level
razeed <razeed_17 asgn yahoo dt com>
chennai, T.N U.A.E - Sunday, January 18, 2009 at 21:26:50 (PST)
you said that
'CHARGE flows in a circle...
...None is created, none is ever lost. '
then how does it get into the wire or battery in the first place? (is it transferred or what?)

prateek <blastviper asgn gmail dt com>
delhi, india - Sunday, January 18, 2009 at 08:21:17 (PST)
Why doesn't electricity flow through rubber? What makes it a non-conducting material?
connie taylor <conniemtaylor asgn gmail dt comxx92>
Honeyville, UT USA - Thursday, January 08, 2009 at 12:57:20 (PST)
Trying to wire in a porch light. The only available power source is an indoor 3 way switch. There is no neutral wire just two hots and a traveler. But there is a bare copper headed for ground. Would it be too extreme to to use the the bare copper for a neutral for this light?

Thanks! i love this web site for browsing and learning. So many things to learn about ELECTRICITY! it is fun.

I need a porch light pretty bad. ~stu

Stuart Morse <igloo98 asgn gmail dt com&@#>
hurricane, ut USA - Wednesday, January 07, 2009 at 14:36:48 (PST)
How would I find a 20 amp curcuit in my house to hook up a inr\fra red sauna?
Clark Franke <clarkfranke asgn verizon dt net>
USA - Wednesday, December 24, 2008 at 12:31:00 (PST)
How do you charge something positive and then something negative with live electrical currents?

Plus... I want to talk to mindy from below...does anyone know hhow to contact her? Her link doesnt work.


Brett Bode <brettbode asgn theghosttracker.org>
Daytona Beach, Fl USA - Monday, December 22, 2008 at 09:26:35 (PST)
I understand electromagnetism n stuff...but can you give me a clearer explanation (no equations please) as to what EXACTLY happens when a rod "CUTS" a steady magnetic field...How exactly is the emf induced...if the field is steady everywhere,how does this cutting ensure that flux linking the rod changes??? whats happening here??? very confused...
Puneet Shankar <ringonaytch88 asgn yahoo dt com>
Bangalore, Karnataka India - Wednesday, December 10, 2008 at 05:03:19 (PST)
What effect might be caused by electrons being loosly bound toatoms in a material?
Cindy <Leiningerc asgn waterloo.k12.ia.us>
Waterloo, IA USA - Monday, December 08, 2008 at 10:13:33 (PST)
I would like to know if there is a rational explanation to the fact that a house electrical system where it appeared after it was checked with a circuit tester that 1 of the 2 main switchs was bad, could start to work after a rain storm. There are no obvious leaks and the panel is protected.
gary kozlowski <garykozmosis asgn hotmail dt com>
thousand oaks, ca USA - Wednesday, November 26, 2008 at 12:12:07 (PST)
current direction is reverse to electrons.why?
nagavaraprasad <tuluriprasad asgn gmail dt com>
hyderabad, andhraprasad india - Monday, November 24, 2008 at 07:45:07 (PST)
What exactly are grid stations?
Abdullah <khan_abdullah2212 asgn yahoo dt com>
Peshawar, NWFP Pakistan - Monday, November 24, 2008 at 00:38:15 (PST)
I have a motor on my stove which is 50/60 hz. How many hz is the current in my house?
Keith Burnor <kgb&122055 asgn yahoo dt com>
Madrid, NY USA - Thursday, November 20, 2008 at 07:41:59 (PST)
i have an example:
some of the free electrons in a good conductor *such as copper) move at speed of 10 exponent of 2 m/s or more.
why don't electrons fly out of the conductor completely?

Jergine <charming_jigz asgn yahoo dt com>
USA - Wednesday, November 12, 2008 at 05:15:16 (PST)
i have an example:
some of the free electrons in a good conductor *such as copper) move at speed of 10 exponent of 2 m/s or more.
why don't electrons fly out of the conductor completely?

Jergine <charming_jigz asgn yahoo dt com>
USA - Wednesday, November 12, 2008 at 05:15:10 (PST)
As a chemist I sometimes have trouble understanding electrical phenomenon, and found your site illuminating. I was wondering if you could tell me why . . . well . . . why high voltage "static" that we experience in daily life has such a low current. What I guess I'm asking is how high current is produced--say with lightning as opposed to a Van de Graaff generator.
Stephen Ballew <just between the double at signs@@bowtie76@gamil dt com@@>
Burnsville, NC USA - Tuesday, November 11, 2008 at 00:26:28 (PST)
What would happen if I plug in a 220 dryer in a 110 outlet?
johhny caesar <letterstwo asgn iwon dt com>
Brooklyn, ny USA - Saturday, November 08, 2008 at 20:25:48 (PST)
Hi again I just want to tell u that if u can email me at sweetypie asgn ihugdt com for some ideas about my boar game for shcool by the 10.11.08 thank u
mark rottger
parramattar, nsw australia - Friday, November 07, 2008 at 15:55:11 (PST)
hi I'm doing a board game about the dangers of electricity so I was wondering if u could give me some ideas of questions
mark rottger
parramattar, nsw australia - Friday, November 07, 2008 at 15:50:52 (PST)
is there a way to convert single phase power to three phase ?
ernest lacks
mebane, nc USA - Monday, November 03, 2008 at 07:33:44 (PST)
I would very much like to know if you perhaps have a schematic for a 12 volt dc photoelectric switch, or where I might be able to get one

thank you very much

michael rusyniak <michaelrusyniak asgn yahoo dt com>
liverpool, ny USA - Thursday, October 23, 2008 at 15:44:23 (PDT)
I have a wall outlet with two black and two white wires leading into it. I have removed the wires and added a third black and third white wire that leads to a light switch, then a wire from the light switch to an overhead light. When i flip the switch it trips the circuit breaker. What am I doing wrong? The light swith I installed has one gold and one black screw on each side + the ground wire. Thanks for your help.

Timothy G. Kochheiser

Tim Kochheiser <timothygk08 asgn yahoo dt com>
Columbia, sc USA - Tuesday, October 21, 2008 at 17:36:56 (PDT)
Does increasing the frequency mean increasing the current flow? Why motors run faster upon increasing the frequency?
Sammy <haisamiqbal asgn yahoo dt co dt uk>
Dallas, TX USA - Wednesday, October 15, 2008 at 13:09:11 (PDT)
I have a baseboard heater some time it work some time it dont. I was wondering wath was the problem ,how do I solve it.
Lionardo Rojas <lionardo.rojas asgn yahoo dt com>
Albion, WA USA - Monday, October 13, 2008 at 18:27:04 (PDT)
To whom it may concern: I am a father trying to assist my daughter on a science project.What type of battery or batteries would I need to succesfully invert a dc power source into a useable ac power source to energize a 60 watt light bulb.
Michael Matthews <m1ymike2420 asgn cableone dt net>
Gautier, MS USA - Saturday, October 11, 2008 at 05:03:00 (PDT)
I am building a stage for a church event. A band will be playing on the stage.

I have been asked to cover the surface with outdoor carpeting (astro turf). I am saying I don't want to because I am concerned that it could cause static electricity and possibly shock the musicians, especially with all the metal microphones and other electrical equipment on the stage.

Am I correct in my concern?

Thank you very much.

Daniel Ramon <dramon714 asgn yahoo dt com>
Frisco, TX USA - Thursday, October 09, 2008 at 06:36:11 (PDT)
When my washing machine goes on, I have a voltage drop or some of my lights begin to flicker. What do you think this could be? A short in the washer, or breaker ready to trip?
Mike Bielamowicz <mike.b asgn bronz-glow dt com>
USA - Wednesday, September 24, 2008 at 17:22:36 (PDT)
Hi William,

I have 2 alternators in parallel feeding a purely RESISTIVE load. The alternators are permanent magnet type & are NOT connected to the power grid.

1)If I increase the driving torque of Alternator 1, what will be the effect on terminal voltage (busbar voltage)?

2)If the busbar voltage decreases due to ARMATURE REACTION, then how will it effect load current? Will load current also decrease or remain constant?

3) If we neglect ARMATURE REACTION, will the terminal voltage (busbar voltage) increase? I certainly think it should INCREASE as per textbook theories on generated alternator emf formulae.

KINDLY REPLY ME ON b.shahvir asgn gmaildt com AT THE EARLIEST.

shahvir balaporia <b.shahvir asgn gmail dt com>
Mumbai(Bombay), Maharashtra India - Wednesday, September 17, 2008 at 00:54:38 (PDT)
Hi William,

I did like to know the effect of varying driving torque of single alternator (not connected to power grid) on terminal voltage across load .Load connected is purely RESISTIVE.Will the load voltage increase or decrease?

Also, if the load voltage decreases (armature reaction), then how does load current increase as it defys ohms law where increase/decrease of load current is proportional to increase/decrease in voltage across load.

KINDLY REPLY ME ON b.shahvir asgn gmaildt com AT THE EARLIEST.

shahvir balaporia <b.shahvir asgn gmail dt com>
Mumbai(Bombay), Maharashtra India - Wednesday, September 17, 2008 at 00:40:39 (PDT)
I have 240 Volts coming out of a 60 Amp Double Pole breaker in my main panel box to an outdoor panel by the pool. At the outdoor box i am only reading 110 when i test each line to the neutral bar, but when i test both lines to each other i read 0 instead of 220. How do I get 220 to the outdoor box? I changed the 60 amp breaker inside already, Is the outdoor panel bad?
Rob <leadranger asgn hotmail dt com>
East Prairie, MO USA - Tuesday, September 16, 2008 at 16:19:49 (PDT)
Is there any way that you can store static electricity and save it for later use? If so, how?

P.S. I like your site. I love the misconceptions. :)

Michelle <binsuy_pokwang asgn yahoo dt com>
Philippines - Tuesday, September 16, 2008 at 12:41:19 (PDT)
Why is there sparks coming from my 5 year old house electrical outlets during a thunderstorm. I have had licensed electricians check the ground to earth. Is this spark dangerous? Is there anything I can do to stop this?
Dana E. Smith <dandksmith asng rockymtncable dt com >
Pagosa Springs, C O USA - Sunday, September 07, 2008 at 17:54:50 (PDT)
CHENNAI, TN INDIA - Friday, August 22, 2008 at 06:59:33 (PDT)
Would you please explain a Typical Voltage Sensing Shunt Resistor Circuit?
Sergei <oxvitality asng hotmail dt com @#$%^&*>
union city, ca USA - Wednesday, August 20, 2008 at 22:50:39 (PDT)
Why does an alternator require more force to turn it when a load is connected?
Trey Howard <Gholson asng aol dt com >
Fairhope, Ala USA - Thursday, August 14, 2008 at 07:10:19 (PDT)
What is the purpose of anhydrous ammonia in the production of electricity in the coal-fueled turbine method?
USA - Wednesday, August 13, 2008 at 23:02:58 (PDT)
How do I convert central air conditioning BTU's for a building into running wattage requirements? How do i calculate the starting wattage requirements?

c.morrison <cdmoon asng earthlink dt net >
citronelle, AL USA - Tuesday, August 05, 2008 at 09:42:40 (PDT)
Could i connect a device that requires 110Voltage and 60Hz to a power source of 110V and 400Hz.
Would the device work?

Tala <tala.khashram asng rj dt com >
USA - Monday, August 04, 2008 at 03:08:03 (PDT)
what is the impact of electricity on the society?
sersh <sershp asng gmail dt com >
thiruvananthapuram, kerala india - Friday, August 01, 2008 at 02:42:35 (PDT)
Is it possible for a motor connected to a generator to produce enough electricity to power itself via a rechargable battery?
James <jamessummerfield asng phs.co.uk>
USA - Thursday, July 31, 2008 at 04:52:15 (PDT)
I seem to have a strange thing happening, and it seems to be "just me". for years now, I have been dealing with everything that I touch...something goes wrong, and it's only electronics. t.v.s, cars(any that I drive) dvd players, watches, among other things. I was told by someone that i had a very strong electromagnetic field around me and it actually can interfere with electronics. I was wondering if there is some sort of truth to this, and if so, what could i do about it. It has nothing to do with accidents, things actually just malfunction when I am around?????

I would love to hear any explanation on this subject.

[ A huge number of people have the same complaint. See http://amasci.com/weird/unusual/zap.html It's usually called "Electric Humans" or "electric people." Sometimes it's just common "static" electricity from low humidity conditions and wearing plastic shoe soles and polyester clothes. But many people say that it happens year round, even in high humidity summer, and is not cured by wearing cotton and going barefoot. For the ones with the "humid summer" version, I'm not aware that anyone has ever perform tests to track this down. -billb] thank you

Mindy <mindy_779602 asng yahoo dt com >
Wasilla, AK USA - Tuesday, July 29, 2008 at 16:53:20 (PDT)
Does it cost money to leave something pluged in and it not be turned on?
Sara <getrdone318 asng yahoo dt com >
Alexandria, LA USA - Friday, July 25, 2008 at 08:10:47 (PDT)
I have an AT&T Blackberry. If I lay it on my kitchen counter it blows my GFI circuit evertime. Should I be concerned?
Alan <seniororacledba asng yahoo dt com >
Canton, Ga USA - Wednesday, July 16, 2008 at 11:38:28 (PDT)
Everytime i rub my fleece blanket there's an electric sparks between it and my fingertips.When i hold our doorknobs or even my bed's silk cover there's something like an electricity that's flowing through my hands. What do you call of this charges? is there anything i can do to prevent it?
leigh <leigh_an atsgn kittymail dt com>
kuwait, Kuwait - Saturday, July 12, 2008 at 05:48:53 (PDT)
its so nice to be here.!!!!!!!!
lenson <y0pakz_rul3 asng yahoo dt com >
USA - Wednesday, July 09, 2008 at 08:24:46 (PDT)
I am looking to buy a kitchen blendor unit. The one I am interested in is 3.5 HP, 20 AMPs, 2400 WATTS (120v a.c., 50 HZ - 60 HZ). The blendor unit comes with a NEMA 5-20R plug (It's one of those plugs where the right prong is horizontal instead of vertical). The blendor unit does come with an adaptor which allows it to plug into a standard electrical recepticle. My question is will this be too much of a power draw from the electrical outlet. I checked the breaker box inside my garage and the switches for the kitchen power have 20 marked on them. I am guessing this means 20 amps? In either case would the blendor unit be suitable for my outlets?
Steve <stvlndn asng yahoo dt com >
mountain house, ca USA - Thursday, July 03, 2008 at 17:21:59 (PDT)
i'm replacing a pool motor that is direct wired. how do i
knnow if it has 110 or 220 going into it without a meter.
it is wired to a wall swith and i thought you could not wire a 220 line to a swith.

walter <epicwalt asng comcast dt net >
vero beach, fl USA - Monday, June 30, 2008 at 08:05:00 (PDT)
why the transmission and generation voltage levels are in multiples of 11? example 11kv, 33kv
Hiren <aminhiren asng yahoo dt com >
los angeles, ca USA - Monday, June 16, 2008 at 13:06:04 (PDT)
1 You were very close.
2 I like the clear concise way you explain this.

Bellingham, WA USA - Monday, June 09, 2008 at 13:24:39 (PDT)
Batteries and Generators
1 Electric currents in copper wires are not a flow of electrons.
2 Electrons are not supplied by batteries.
3 Electrons are not supplied by generators.
4 In copper wire, copper atoms supply the electrons.
5 The electrons in a circuit are already there before the battery or generator is connected.
6 The electrons act like a pre-existing fluid which is always found within all wires.
7 In order to understand electric circuits, we must imagine that all the wires are pre-filled with a sort of "liquid electricity."
8 To clarify this, use a hand-cranked generator as your power supply.
9 When we include the generator in the circuit, we find that the circuit is a continuous closed loop, and we can find no single place where the "electricity" originates.
10 A generator is like a closed loop pump, but it does not supply the substance being pumped.
11 Batteries are like this as well.
12 The liquid between the battery plates is an electrolyte, and electrolytes are conductors.
13 Some batteries contain acid, others are alkaline batteries, and still others use conductive salt water.
14 Flowing charges go through the battery, and no charges build up inside.
15 Batteries and generators cause electric charge to flow.
16 All conductors are full of "moveable" charge.
17 A circuit is like a never ending loop of domino tiles, the battery or generator starts the cascade of tiles, but the tiles are always there.
18 When a generator stops, or when the metal circuit is opened, all electrons stop where they are, and the wires remain filled with electric charges.

Bellingham, WA USA - Monday, June 09, 2008 at 13:21:45 (PDT)
Electric Currents
1 Electrons do not flow.
2 Alternating current electrons do not sit in place and vibrate.
3 It is the energy in the circuit which flows fast, not the electrons.
4 In a simple circuit, all of the wires are totally packed full of electrons all the time.
5 This is true for all forms of matter.
6 When a battery or generator pumps the electrons at one point in the circuit, electons in the entire loop of the circuit are forced to "flow," and energy spreads almost instantly throughout the entire circuit.
7 This happens even though the electrons do not move.
8 To aid your understanding, imagine a large wheel.
9 If you give it a spin, the entire wheel moves as a unit.
10 The movement of the wheel is like the electrons in a wire.

Bellingham, WA USA - Monday, June 09, 2008 at 13:10:10 (PDT)
What will happen if same phase wire connect to two different pressure coils and current coils in kwh meter.Is it posssible?
hari <damulurihari2001 asng yahoo.co.in>
visakhapartnam, AP India - Saturday, June 07, 2008 at 23:52:37 (PDT)
I have a pompous friend who insists that being in a car while it is struck by lightning is safe because a car is a Faraday cage and lightning is a form of electromagnetic radiation. I know that the interior of a car is a safe haven from lightning (they did it on Brainiac, I think), but I'm sure this is because the car just acts as a lightning rod, and I'm extremely sure that lightning does not travel in waves.

So, which is it: lightning is an electromagnetic wave and is stopped by car-shaped Faraday cages, or lightning is not a wave and is stopped by car-shaped lightning rods?

Tyler <themuffinking01 asng gmail.com>
Baltimore, MD USA - Friday, June 06, 2008 at 23:31:57 (PDT)
Would you please let me know The Principle of Calculating the Circuit Breaker and the Wire Size According to the Electrical Load( Amperes ).
Best Regards
Muhammad Kuraan

Muhammad Kuraan <mmhk1957 asng yahoo dt com >
Amman, Jordan - Tuesday, June 03, 2008 at 01:26:24 (PDT)
what is ohms law?
masoud <masoud125 asng yahoo.co.uk>
ipswich, uk - Wednesday, May 28, 2008 at 06:46:40 (PDT)
I have an electrical power plug for my laptop. It says on the plug 65 Watts. Does that mean it consumes 65 watts as long as it is plugged in ? Does the laptop ever say I'm full now, and don't need any more power at this time ?
chas mcg <chasjmcg asng comcast dt net >
willowbeook, il USA - Monday, May 19, 2008 at 07:24:55 (PDT)
I teach electricity and it is difficult to explain and now I have answers for me and for the students. thanks a lot. is there a book of all this material?
kal kaikat <bokal55 asng hotmail dt com >
kuala lumpur, malaysia - Wednesday, May 14, 2008 at 16:54:41 (PDT)
Hi my best friend is in an electric wheel chair. I have recenlty wired up neon lights all around the base and installed speakers into his head-rest but they are all run from seperate batteries and they work fine but this is very basic wireing. Can u please tell me how to wire a three pin plug - applience to a battery, as i am quite confused as to where the three wires go.
thank you

Andrew Keeler <a.keeler asng hotmail.co.uk>
cardiff, uk - Tuesday, May 13, 2008 at 13:11:36 (PDT)
In the main service panel, can two ground wires be placed in 1 hole in the neutral/grounding buss bar. I have a GE load center Cat. TL302OC Mod.2. main. I hear that the neutral wire cannot, but the ground wires of 2 circuits can be. Is this OK ( by code )?
Al <pestynarla asng yahoo dt com >
Billerica, Massachusetts USA - Tuesday, May 13, 2008 at 12:37:30 (PDT)
Electric charge can appear on a long wire everywhere at c velocity before electrons have a chance to be set into motion. In an inductive circuit like wire the current lags the voltage by 90 degrees. Your assumption that charge is an absence or excess of electrons is in error.

Charge or "E field" is due to photons. These photons move at C velocity and charge up the far end of a wire before electrons have time to move off the wire and into the battery.

Since either positive or negative charge can move down a wire at c velocity, we know that both Protons and Electron shells emit and absorb photons before electrons can even think about hopping atoms.

I believe the basic notion that E field is an excess of electrons needs to be looked at from a physics percpetion and re-thought out. Since the velocity of electrons hopping atoms is far below c, and we can have 1000's of volts appearing at lightspeed miles down a wire, we truly need to correct this missconception.

David Lowrance
c_s_s_p group

David Lowrance <libra_spirit asng hotmail.com>
Sitka, Ak USA - Friday, May 09, 2008 at 20:46:37 (PDT)
Not a question actually.
Regarding your comment about "was Franklin wrong by stating electrons are negative", besides your arguments, I seem to recall from some physics course that there is an effect called the "Hall effect" which actually proves that electrons are in fact negative.

Good luck with your crusade

Eduardo <lalope asng gmail dt com >
Sćo Paulo, Brazil - Thursday, May 08, 2008 at 12:59:29 (PDT)

thanks for very interesting explanations. I found a small
inconsistency in the speed of electrons in the following two answers: (although, both speeds are very slow when compared to the speed of light)


... Electrons actually flow quite slowly, at speeds on the order of centimeters per minute.


... Electrons in metals typically flow at a few centimeters per hour, even during high currents. That's slower than the minute hand on a clock!

small error
USA - Wednesday, May 07, 2008 at 12:04:19 (PDT)
Your site is intriguing. You are absolutely correct in regards to the way that K-6 teaches things. I've always wondered why they dumb things down so much. Apparently Electricity is a hard concept to understand?
GA USA - Wednesday, May 07, 2008 at 05:40:13 (PDT)
HI Bill, I have a question about my grandmother's house; While I was away our tenents told us that there was a surge in the house; that blew out light bulbs and his clock radio got destroyed. It's an old house; his brother is an electician and tighted something outside of the house. I'm trying to get an understanding what happened. It's an old house; old wiring; do you have any ideas on how this phenmominon can happen? thankyou sir, Frank :)
Frank DeVito <guito_d asng yahoo dt com yyyyyy>
Revere, MA USA - Tuesday, May 06, 2008 at 09:56:33 (PDT)
why carbon brushes are used in motor? why other type of brushes are not? what are types of brushes available.
saran <knssaran asng gmail dt com >
vellore, Tamil nadu india - Friday, May 02, 2008 at 00:16:18 (PDT)
Im confused from what i read...electron flow from the negative terminal of the battery, through the wire, to the positive terminal of the battery, then into the battery and out again from the negative terminal...that would mean that electrons come from the battery, and that not energy is supplied by batteries...but electrons!...also, that electrons would flow as much as water does in a pipe is just as confusing because electrons get excited, yes, release energy in the process, goes back to ground state while releasing energy in the process...that energy is electrical energy, or current, which is transferred from one electron to another...then energy would flow, but not electrons...please help me understand!
dulce amor apita-beato <dulceamorbeato asng yahoo dt com >
manila, Philippines - Thursday, May 01, 2008 at 17:15:44 (PDT)
How many home electronic equipments can be connected if the circuit has 3 Ampere current flow?
samu <thomas_thomasin asng yahoo dt com >
bangalore, india USA - Wednesday, April 30, 2008 at 02:31:53 (PDT)
the didtance from the east cost to the west cost is about 7770 Kilometer (about 300 miles). how many times can electricity travel this ditance in just one second?

that is the only question i have.
thank you :)

Jo-Anne Morrison <k.a.jo-anne asng hotmail dt com >
mississauga, ONT Canada - Tuesday, April 22, 2008 at 07:52:50 (PDT)
Why is static electricity important?
javaris <jmoney_2011 asng hotmail dt com >
tampa, FL USA - Wednesday, April 02, 2008 at 05:51:03 (PDT)
Why are there only four potentials, L1 L2 L3 & N, and there are no potentials that are greater?

Another question is exactly what is going on when current is 90 degrees out of phase with voltage in AC? Does that mean voltage(magnetic field) is ahead of the electrons(current)?

Why the pathagorean therum works so well for AC calculations, like solving for impedance? I know how to do the calculations, but i do not what it means?

Can you put that up on the site, thank you.

tito <^^^ TIESTO1776 asng **** OOHAY . !!!! COM>
USA - Monday, March 31, 2008 at 17:35:12 (PDT)
Hai, my name is Marungkil Pasaribu. Iam a post graduate student at Malang University, Indonesia. A part of my disertation topic is to find a type of student misconception in static electricity based on their stage cognitive development. And by now there is a sandwich progrom from my government to student who want to study more about their disertation. So if you don't mind could you please to become my supervisor and give me a letter of acceptance?


Marungkil Pasaribu <pasar67 asng yahoo dt com >
Malang, Indonesia - Friday, March 28, 2008 at 01:01:31 (PDT)


vilo <johnking3004 asng yahoo dt com >
Toktyo, Tk Japan - Wednesday, March 26, 2008 at 02:36:46 (PDT)
Is ELECTRICITY then an effect?
Ben <Necroben asng yahoo dt com 12345>
Athens, GA USA - Sunday, March 23, 2008 at 19:50:42 (PDT)
Thanks you for your work, it has been a great read. Are you familiar with the electric model of the universe? Q: I can't help but suspect that if electricity always produces a magnetic field that an ordinary magnet is also interacting with the universe/space in an electrical relationship, is it?
Joe Hunt <joeshunt asng gmail dt com >
Brantford, on Canada - Monday, March 17, 2008 at 19:29:21 (PDT)
Why and which electrical appliances required more starting current as compare to running current
dmjaffar <dmjaffar asng yahoo dt com >
Quetta, balochistan Pakistan - Friday, March 14, 2008 at 03:42:00 (PDT)
nigel <nigel.mccoy asng gvcltd dt net >
sunderland, ENGLAND - Wednesday, March 12, 2008 at 08:50:19 (PDT)
The same number of electrons enter a load as leave it so what IS different on the downstream side that can be measured as a voltage drop?
jonathan schneider <quonsetqueen asng msn dt com >
Saugatuck, MI USA - Sunday, March 09, 2008 at 11:33:59 (PDT)
When you turn on more lights and appliances in your home, the current in the circuits is greater. Why is this, given that you are adding more resistance with each component?

JoAnn Fields <chleo asng nalu dt net >
Batesville , IN USA - Tuesday, February 26, 2008 at 15:00:33 (PST)
When using jumper cables on a car battery, why do the positive terminals spark while the negative ones do not?
Shayn Herpich
USA - Friday, February 22, 2008 at 22:08:33 (PST)
what can a large current of elecrity do to our bodies??
matthew bufton <matto003007 asng hoymail.co.uk>
Dunstable, bedfordshire england - Friday, February 15, 2008 at 02:15:06 (PST)
i just wanna ask if electric can move by itself.Please answer me asap.thanks
norie ann quiroquiro <annejun_0677>
cebu, philippines philippines - Tuesday, February 05, 2008 at 23:09:00 (PST)
How does the electricity provider connect and disconnect supply to an existing meter ?
Forbes <forbes asng aussiemail dt com .auXX>
Melbourne, Aus - Tuesday, January 29, 2008 at 18:39:15 (PST)
What does it mean when a outlet tests as "Open ground" - is it anything to worry about?
J Taylor <gooptaylor asng yahoo dt com >
Duluth, MN USA - Monday, January 28, 2008 at 20:51:42 (PST)
what are some dangerous situations involving current electricity
- Saturday, January 26, 2008 at 08:30:43 (PST)

I had lot of confusion regarding basic of electricity, iwant to know what does sine waveform to do with charge flowing and voltage ,and when say voltage is negative in waveform what it means ?Can this be explained with water analogy ,it is really cofusion for me, since i found your articles really dealing with thse confusion, i hope to get answers on this queery very soon.

ASHOK <ashok.pcessentials asng gmail dt com >
Pune, maharashtra India - Thursday, January 24, 2008 at 01:01:26 (PST)
Which would fall faster a fat person or a person with really big nostrils
Anna Mason <cute_koala73 asng hotmail dt com >
St Albans, Hertfordshire uk - Monday, January 21, 2008 at 04:45:06 (PST)
I just wanted to say thanks. I've worked with electricity all my life but never really understood it. Though I think your still a little wrong. Mankind just doesnt know everything yet. And no one is perfect. It's great to finally get the jist of it. I have read a number of books on it. None of them really answering questions, just making me more confused.

You should really write a book for young adults, or everyone on the planet.

Misinformation is whats wrong with this world.

Now I gotta figure out EXACTLY how antennas work!

Dick Lewis
USA - Sunday, January 20, 2008 at 21:10:17 (PST)
Dear Bill,
It was a great thing to discover your wonderful website on Understanding Electricity yesterday quite accidentally. I am a retired science teacher and also a born-again Christian.
Ever since I was a student in school learning the Ohm’s Law in the beginning, I had a question which nobody could answer satisfactorily. I hope you are the right person to answer it. Kindly reply it, please.
The question is a kind of thought experiment based on Ohm’s Law: Let us imagine a battery, say, a 10 Volts type, which is on the Earth and a resistance, say 10 Ohms, placed on the Moon. Let us also imagine a pair of conductors connecting the battery and the resistance via a switch. Let us also accept that the conductors have no resistance at all.
Now, when the switch is turned ON a current of 1 Amp should flow through the resistance on the Moon. I think this 1 Amp current should consist of 10 to the power 19 electrons (if I am not mistaken!) and these electrons should ‘at a time come out of the battery’ at the very instant of switching.
Here, my question is: How can the battery ‘know’ that it has to send exactly those many electrons (as per Ohm’s Law) to travel around the total path of nearly 600,000 Kms “like a train running at 300,000 Kms per second”. This ‘Current Train’ will take about two seconds to complete the circuit! So even before completing the ‘circuit’ how will the battery determine the 1Amp current, as in this condition (open circuit, for 2 seconds!) Ohm’s Law cannot be applied?
I see two possibilities: 1- No current will flow, 2- A current can only flow if an instantaneous reporting element exists in the universe to satisfy the nature of electric flow ( supporting Ohm’s Law). Can the Heavyside Theory be taken into account?

Thank You.
Sincerely yours,
Satya Shobhan Das
satyashobhandas asng rediffmail dt com

satyashobhan das <satyashobhandas asng rediffmail dt com >
BALASORE, ORISSA INDIA - Friday, January 18, 2008 at 23:55:29 (PST)

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