The Wallace Inventions, Spin Aligned Nuclei, The Gravitomagnetic Field,
and The Tampere Experiment: Is there a connection?
By: Robert Stirniman, May 1998
During the 1960s through the mid 1970s, Henry William Wallace was a
scientist at GE Aerospace in Valley Forge PA, and GE Re-Entry Systems in
Philadelphia. In the early 1970s, Wallace was issued patents (1,2,3) for
some unusual inventions relating to the gravitational field. Wallace
developed an experimental apparatus for generating and detecting a
secondary gravitational field, which he named the kinemassic field, and
which is now better known as the gravitomagnetic field.
Wallace's experiments were based on aligning the nuclear spin of elements
and isotopes which have an odd number of nucleons. These materials are
characterized by a total nuclear spin which is an odd integral multiple of
one-half, resulting in one nucleon with un-paired spin. Wallace drew an
analogy between the un-paired angular momentum in these materials, and the
un-paired magnetic moments of electrons in ferromagnetic materials.
Wallace created nuclear spin alignment by rapidly spinning a brass disk, of
which essentially all isotopes have an odd number of nucleons. Nuclear spin
becomes aligned in the spinning disk due to precession of nuclear angular
momentum in inertial space -- a process similar to the magnetization
developed by rapidly spinning a ferrous material (known as the Barnett
effect). The gravitomagnetic field generated by the spinning disk is tightly
coupled (0.01 inch air gap) to a gravitomagnetic field circuit composed of
material having half integral nuclear spin, and analogous to magnetic core
material in transformers and motors. The gravitomagnetic field is
transmitted through the field circuit and focused by the field material to
a small space where it can be detected.
In his three patents, Wallace describes three different methods used for
detection of the gravitomagnetic field -- change in the motion of a body on
a pivot, detection of a transverse voltage in a semiconductor crystal, and
a change in the specific heat of a crystal material having spin-aligned
nuclei. In a direct analogy with a magnetic circuit, the relative amount
of the detected gravitomagnetic field always varied directly with the size
of the air-gap between the generator disk and the field circuit.
Wallace's patents are written in great detail, and he appears to be
meticulous in his experimental design and practice. In my opinion, it is
nearly certain that his experiments performed as claimed. None the less,
there has been no scientific acknowledgment whatsoever of Wallace's
discoveries. An in-depth search of the literature has uncovered only two
references to Wallaces work (4, 5), and each of these references merely
creates further mystery.
The necessary existence of a magnetic-like gravitational field has been
well established by physicists specializing in general relativity,
gravitational theories, and cosmology. But, the existence of this field is
not well known in other of arenas of physical science. The gravitomagnetic
field was first hypothesized by Heaviside in the 1880's. The field is
predicted by general relativity, and was first formulated in a relativistic
context in 1918 by Lense and Thirring (6). In 1961, Forward (7) was the
first to express the gravitational field equations in a vector form
directly analogous and nearly identical to Maxwells equations for
electromagnetics.
During the last 20 years many other scientists, (8 to 17), have published
articles demonstrating the necessary existence of the gravitomagnetic
field, using arguments based on general relativity, special relativity,
and the cause and effect relationship which results from non-instantaneous
propagation of energy (retardation). Nearly all of these authors present
the gravitational field equations in a vector form similar to Maxwells
equations. Some authors comment that these equations provide fundamental
insights into gravitation, and it is unfortunate that they are not at all
well known. Despite their relative simplicity and possible practical
value, Maxwells equations for gravitation do not appear in any under-
graduate physics textbook.
Just as in Maxwells equations for electromagnetics, it is found that in the
presence of a time varying gravitomagnetic flux there will always exist
concurrently a time varying gravitoelectric field. The secondary generated
gravitoelectric field is a dipole field, and unlike the background gravito-
electric field due to mass charges, the generated gravitoelectric field
always exists in closed loops. Henry Wallace recognized this and described
it in his inventions.
Wallace also describes another effect which may result from generation of a
secondary gravitoelectric field. Wallace believed that a secondary gravito-
electric field can result in exclusion of an existing primary background
field. In other words, a gravitational shield can be created. The bulk of
Wallace's patents describe his experimental apparatus, and his detection of
the gravitomagnetic field. The effects detected are minuscule, and as such,
may not be of immediate practical value. In reading his patents it is
possible to become immersed in the detail of his experimental apparatus,
and to neglect the possible significance of the alternative embodiment of
his invention (figures 7, 7A, and 7B of his first patent). The alternative
embodiment uses a time varying gravitomagnetic flux to create a secondary
gravitoelectric field in an enclosed shell of material in order to shield
the background gravitoelectric field of the earth.
Unfortunately, Wallace does not state whether this embodiment was ever
actually produced, and unlike the detailed discussion of his experimental
apparatus, he provides no experimental findings or data to back his claim.
Nor does he provide much in the way of theoretical arguments about how a
secondary gravitoelectric field can act to exclude a primary field, except
to state: "It is well known that nature opposes heterogeneous field flux
densities."
Is it well known that nature opposes heterogeneous flux densities? Well,
not to me, and I can not find anything in the way of scientific literature
to directly support this idea. But it does seem to make sense. It could be
argued thusly. In a well-ordered manifold all derivatives of the fields,
time-like and space-like, must be continuous. If you force a field to exist
in a region of space, the existing background field is somehow required to
form a pattern around or smoothly merge with the created field. Nature does
not permit flux lines to act with cross-purposes and to exist with widely
different directions in the same region of space. Flux lines can never
cross. Wallace seems to have gotten his experiments right -- maybe he is
also right in his claim of inventing a gravitational shield?
In a ground breaking paper in 1966, Dewitt (18) was first to identify the
significance of gravitational effects in a superconductor. Dewitt
demonstrated that a magnetic-type gravitational field must result in the
presence of fluxoid quantization. In 1983, Dewitt's work was substantially
expanded by Ross (19).
Beginning in 1991, Ning Li, at the University of Alabama Huntsville, and
Douglas Torr, formerly at Huntsville and now at the University of South
Carolina, have published a number of articles about gravitational effects
in superconductors (20, 21, 22). One interesting finding they have derived
is the source of gravitomagnetic flux in a type II superconductor material.
Guess what? It is due to spin alignment of the lattice ions.
Quoting from Li and Torr's second paper: "The interaction energy of the
internal magnetic field with the magnetic moment of the lattice ions drives
the lattice ions and superconducting condensate wave function to move
together vortically within the range of the coherent length and results in
an induced precession of the angular momentum of the lattice ions." And
quoting from their third paper: "Recently we demonstrated theoretically
that the carriers of quantized angular momentum are not the Cooper pairs
but the lattice ions, which must execute coherent localized motion
consistent with the phenomenon of superconductivity." And, "It is shown
that the coherent alignment of lattice ion spins will generate a detectable
gravitomagnetic field, and in the presence of a time-dependent applied
magnetic vector potential field, a detectable gravitoelectric field."
Li and Torr also demonstrate that the gravitomagnetic field in a super-
conductor has a relatively large magnitude compared with the magnetic
field -- a factor of 10E11 times larger. The gravitational wave velocity
in a superconductor is estimated as a factor of two magnitudes smaller than
the velocity in free space. And the resulting estimate of relative gravito-
magnetic permeability is four magnitudes (10 thousand times) greater than
the permeability of free space. In their third paper, Torr and Li,
demonstrate that it is possible to generate a time varying gravitomagnetic
field in a superconductor, which must exist concurrently with a time
varying gravitoelectric field.
In 1995, Becker et al (23), show mathematically that a significant size
gravitomagnetic field must always exist along with a magnetic field
whenever there is flux pinning or other forms of flux trapping in a
type II superconductor. They propose a macroscopic experiment to detect
the gravitomagnetic field. Becker et al, choose not to speculate about
the source of the gravitomagnetic field, except to provide a brief comment
that it may result from spin of the lattice ions. One might ask, what is
a pinning center if not a microscopic hole which carries trapped flux,
and what must be source of the gravitomagnetic dipole moment if not the
angular momentum of the lattice ions at the pinning center?
In 1992, an experiment at Tampere University was reported by Podkletnov
(24, 25). A torroidal shaped type II superconductor disk was suspended
via the Meissner effect by a constant vertical magnetic field, and was
rapidly rotated by a time varying horizontal magnetic field. Masses
located in a cylindrical spacial geometry above the rotating disk were
found to lose up to 2% of their weight. A gravitational shielding effect
is claimed.
Conclusion.
Is a time varying gravitomagnetic field generated in the Tampere disk due
to the horizontal time varying magnetic field used to rotate the disk, and
does this result in a time varying gravitoelectric field in the disk, and
possibly also in the space surrounding the disk, and could this result in
exclusion of the earth's primary background gravitoelectric field as
claimed by Henry Wallace?
Acknowledgments.
Many of the ideas in this article have been developed in personal
discussions with Kedrick Brown (http://home.att.net/~kfbrown/index.html).
I would also like to thank Ron Kita for his kind support and useful
background information about Henry Wallace.
====================================================
References:
1. US Patent No 3626605, Method and Apparatus for Generating a Secondary
Gravitational Force Field, Henry Wm Wallace, Ardmore PA, Dec 14, 1971.
Wallace's first patent. The gravitomagnetic field is named the
kinemassic field. The patent describes the embodiment of his
experiment. An additional embodiment of the invention (Figures 7, 7A,
and 7B) describes how a time varying gravitomagnetic field can be used
to shield the primary background gravitoelectric field. Available on
the net. http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/weird/wallc/
2. US Patent No 3626606, Method and Apparatus for Generating a Dynamic
Force Field, Henry Wm Wallace, Ardmore PA, Dec 14, 1971.
Wallace's second patent provides a variation of his experiment. A
type III-V semiconductor material (Indium Arsenide), of which both
materials have unpaired nuclear spin, is used as an electronic
detector for the gravitomagnetic field. The experiment demonstrates
that the material in his gravitomagnetic field circuit has hysterisis
and remanence effects analogous to magnetic materials. Available on
the net. http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/weird/wallc/
3. US Patent No 3823570, Heat Pump, Henry Wm Wallace, 60 Oxford Drive,
Freeport NY, July 16, 1974
Wallaces third patent provides an additional variation of his
experiment. Wallace demonstrates that by aligning the nuclear spin
of materials having an odd number of nucleons, order is created in
the material, resulting in a change in specific heat.
4. New Scientist, 14 February 1980, Patents Review
This article is one of the only references to Wallace's work anywhere
in the literature. The article provides a brief summary of his
invention and ends with this intriguing paragraph. "Although the
Wallace patents were initially ignored as cranky, observers believe
that his invention is now under serious but secret investigation by
the military authorities in the US. The military may now regret that
the patents have already been granted and so are available for anyone
to read."
5. Electric Propulsion Study, Dennis L. Cravens, Science Applications
International Corp, August 1990, Prepared for Astronautics Laboratory,
Edwards AFB
This report provides a detailed review of a variety of 5-D theories of
gravitational and electromagnetic interactions. It also provides a
summary of a variety of possibly anomalous experiments, including
experiments relating to spin aligned nuclei. The reports contains two
paragraphs about Wallace's inventions -- partially quoted here: "The
patents are written in a very believable style which include part
numbers, sources for some components, and diagrams of data. Attempts
were made to contact Wallace using patent addresses and other sources
but he was not located nor is there a trace of what became of his work.
The concept can be somewhat justified on general relativistic grounds
since rotating frames of time varying fields are expected to emit
gravitational waves."
6. On the Gravitational Effects of Rotating Masses: The Lense-Thirring
Papers Translated, B. Mashhoon, F.W. Hehl, and D.S. Theiss. General
Relativity and Gravitation, Vol 16:711-50 (1984)
A translation of the original article in German by J. Lense and H.
Thirring published in 1918. This article is the first fairly
comprehensive analysis of the necessary existence of the gravito-
magnetic field. An earlier prediction of the existence of this field
was made by Heaviside in the 1880s.
7. Proceedings of the IRE Vol 49 p 892, Robert L. Forward (1961)
Forward was the first to express the gravitomagnetic field in the
modern form of Maxwells equations for gravitation. He named it the
prorotational field.
8. Gravitation, C.W. Misner, K.S. Thorne, and J.A. Wheeler, Freeman
Publishing, San Francisco (1973).
MTW is the bible of gravitational theorists. Among many other theories
presented, gravitational field equations are derived from general
relativity in a form similar to Maxwells equations.
9. Laboratory Experiments to Test Relativistic Gravity, Vladimir B.
Braginsky, Carlton M. Caves, and Kip S. Thorne, Physical Review D,
Vol 15 No 8 p2047, April 15 1977
Gravitational field equations are derived from General Relativity in
a form similar to Maxwells equations. The gravitomagnetic field is
called magnetic-type gravity. A variety of experiments are proposed
and analyzed for detecting the gravitomagnetic field.
10. Foucault Pendulum at the South Pole: Proposal for an Experiment to
Detect the Earth's General Relativistic Gravitomagnetic Field, Vladimir
Braginsky, Aleksander Polnarev, and Kip Thorne, Physical Review Letters,
Vol 53 No 9 p863, August 1984
Analyses an experiment for detecting the earth's gravitomagnetic
field. Possibly the first authors to use the terms gravitomagnetic
and gravitoelectric.
11. On Relativistic Gravitation, D. Bedford and P. Krumm, American Journal
of Physics, Vol 53 No 9, September 1985
The necessary existence of the gravitomagnetic field is derived from
arguments based on apecial relativity. The field is referred to as
the gravitational analog of the magnetic field.
12. The Gravitational Poynting Vector and Energy Transfer, Peter Krumm
and Donald Bedford, American Journal of Physics, Vol 55 No 4 p362,
April 1987
Establishes the necessary existence of the gravitomagnetic field
based on arguments from special relativity and energy conservation in
mass flow. Derives the gravitational Poynting vector. Names the two
types of gravitational fields as gravinetic and gravistatic.
13. Gravitomagnetism in Special Relativity, American Journal of Physics
Vol 56 No 6 p523, June 1988
Predicts the existence of the gravitomagnetic field using special
relativity and time dilation. Names the fields gravielectric and
gravimagnetic.
14. Detection of the Gravitomagnetic Field Using an Orbiting
Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer: Theoretical Principles, Bahram
Mashhoon, Ho Jung Paik, and Clifford Will, Physical Review D, Vol 39
No 10 p2825, May 1989.
Provides a summary analysis of Maxwells equations for gravitation,
and an in-depth analysis of the Gravity Probe-B orbital gyroscope
experiment for detecting the earth's gravitomagnetic field.
15. Analogy Between General Relativity and Electromagnetism for Slowly
Moving Particles in Weak Gravitational Fields, Edward G. Harris,
American Journal of Physics, Vol 59 No 5, May 1991
Derives Maxwells equations for gravitation from GR in the case of
non-relativistic velocities and relatively weak field strengths.
A somewhat more direct method of derivation is used compared with
the PPN formulation used by Braginsky, et al.
16. Gravitation and Inertia, Ignazio Ciufolini and John Wheeler, Princeton
Series in Physics, Princeton University Press (1995), Chapter 6 -- The
Gravitomagnetic Field and its Measurement.
Derives the electromagnetic analog of the gravitational field
equations, and provides in-depth analysis of experiments for detecting
the gravitomagnetic field.
17. Causality, Electromagnetic Induction, and Gravitation. Oleg Jefimenko,
Electret Scientific Publishing, Star City WV (1992).
Jefimenko derives the electromagnetic field equations based on
retarded sources, (charges, moving charges, and accelerating charges).
He applies similar arguments to the gravitational field equations. If
gravitational energy propagates at any finite speed, the gravito-
magnetic field must exist. Maxwells equations for gravitation are
presented. He also presents an unusual configuration of mass which is
predicted to provide an antigravity effect.
18. Physics Review Letters, Vol 16 p1902, B.S. Dewitt (1966)
I don't have this paper, and can not provide a summary. Dewitt was
the first to analyze fluxoid quantization in a superconductor in the
presence of a time varying magnetic-type gravitational field.
19. The London Equations for Superconductors in a Gravitational Field,
D.K. Ross, Journal of Physics A, Vol 16 p1331. (1983)
Maxwells equations for gravitation are presented in vector form. Ross
uses the name coined by Forward for the gravitomagnetic field -- the
prorotational field. Fluxoid quantization is analyzed in the presence
of a varying gravitomagnetic field. Ross establishes that the momentum
of a charged particle in an electromagnetic and gravitational field is
given (in MKS units) by: p = mv +qA + mV, where V is the gravito-
magnetic vector potential, and A is the magnetic vector potential. The
resulting modified London equations are presented in covariant form.
20. Effects of a Gravitomagnetic Field on Pure Superconductors, Ning Li
and Douglas Torr, Physical Review D, Vol 43 No2 p457, January 1991
Li and Torr present Maxwells equations for gravitation using MKS
units. The equations are given in a form where the gravitomagnetic
permeability of a superconductor material is presumed to be different
than the permeability of free space. Vector equations for the
gravitational potentials are also presented. The canonical momentum
is derived (same finding as Ross paper). It is established that an
electrical current also results in a mass current, and an inter-
relationship is derived between the magnetic field and gravitomagnetic
field in a superconductor. It is established that the magnetic flux
in a superconductor is a function of the gravitomagnetic permeability,
and vice versa, resulting in a more rigorous form of the Meissner
equation and the London theory. It is shown that the gravitomagnetic
field must have a relatively large size in a superconductor, and is
on the order of 10E11 times larger than the magnetic field.
21. Gravitational Effects on the Magnetic Attenuation of Superconductors,
Ning Li and Douglas Torr, Physical Review B, Vol 64 No 9 p5489.
September 1992.
Li and Torr elaborate on their theory of the interrelationship of
the gravitomagnetic field and the magnetic field in superconductors.
It is established that the gravitomagnetic field must be sourced by
spin alignment of the lattice ions. The velocity of a gravitational
wave in a superconductor is estimated to be two orders of magnitude
slower than the vacuum velocity, resulting in an estimate of relative
gravitational permeability of a superconductor material which is as
much as four magnitudes greater than free space.
22. Gravitoelectric-Electric Coupling Via Superconductivity, Douglas Torr
and Ning Li, Foundations of Physics Letters, Vol 6 No 4 p371. (1993)
Torr and Li continue their analysis of gravitational effects in
superconductors. Abstract: "Recently we demonstrated theoretically
that the carriers of quantized angular momentum are not the Cooper
pairs but the latice ions, which must execute coherent localized
motion consistent with the phenomenon of superconductivity. We
demonstrate here that in the presence of an external magnetic field,
the free superelectron and bound ion currents largely cancel providing
a self-consistent microscopic and macroscopic interpretation of near-
zero magnetic permeability inside superconductors. The neutral mass
currents, however, do not cancel, because of the monopolar
gravitational charge. It is shown the coherent alignment of lattice
ion spins will generate a detectable gravitomagnetic field, and in the
presence of a time-dependent applied magnetic vector potential field,
a detectable gravitoelectric field."
23. Proposal for the Experimental Detection of Gravitomagnetism in the
Terrestrial Laboratory, Robert Becker, Paul Smith, and Heffrey
Bertrand. September 1995. Published on the net.
http://www.inetarena.com/~noetic/pls/RBecker/Gmexp2.htm
Becker, et al, demonstrate mathematically that a significant size
gravitomagnetic field must exist concurrently with a magnetic field
in a superconductor whenever there is flux pinning or other forms of
flux trapping. An experiment is proposed whereby a small hole is made
in a superconductor, flux is trapped in the hole, and the gravito-
magnetic field is detected by measuring counter-torque from a
macroscopic cylindrical mass inserted through the hole.
24. A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x
Superconductor, E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, Physica C Vol 203 p441
(1992)
Podkletnov describes an experiment where a 2% reduction in weight is
created in a mass suspended over a levitated and rotating super-
conductor disk. A detailed compilation of information about this
experiment is available on the net at Pete Skegg's website.
http://www.inetarena.com/~noetic/pls/gravity.html
25. Weak Gravitational Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk Yba2Cu3O7-x
Superconductor Below 70K Under EM Field, Eugene Podkletnov, LANL
Physics Preprint Server, Cond-Mat/9701074, January 1997.
Podkletnov provides greater detail about his experimental apparatus
and the construction of the superconductor disk. Available on the net.
http://www.gravity.org/msu.html
==========================================
Appendix - MKS Units for the Gravitomagnetic Field.
Gravitoelectric Charge = Kg
(in purely electrical units, Kg = (Weber/Meter)(Coul/Meter)(Sec)
Gravitoelectric Field = Meter/Sec-Squared
Gravitoelectric Flux Density = Kg/Meter-Squared
Mass Current = Kg/Sec = (Weber/Meter)(Coul/Meter)
Gravitomagnetic Dipole Moment = (Kg)(Meter-Squared)/Sec
= Angular Momentum
= (Coulomb)(Weber)
Gravitoelectric Dipole Moment = (Kg)(Meter)
(You would need the equivalent of negative mass to make one of these)
Gravitomagnetic Charge = (Velocity)(Meter) = Square-Meter/Sec
Gravitomagnetic Field = (Mass Current)/Meter = Kg/Sec-Meter
= (Coul/Meter)(Weber/Meter)/Meter
Gravitomagnetic Flux Density = (Gravitomagnetic Charge)/Meter^2
= Velocity/Meter
= 1/Sec = Angular Velocity
Gravitoelectric Scalar Potential = Joule/Kg
= (Acceleration)(Meter)
= (Gravitoelectric Field)(Meter)
= Velocity-Squared
= Meter-Squared/Second-Squared
Gravitomagnetic Vector Potential = (Gravitomagnetic Charge)/Meter
= Velocity = Meter/Sec
Gravitoelectric Permitivity = Gravitoelectric Flux per Gravitoelectric Field
= (Kg)(Second-Squared)/(Cubic Meter)
= 1/4(Pi)(G) = 1.1927E09 Kg-Sec^2/Meter^3
Gravitomagnetic Permeability = Gravitomagnetic Flux per Gravitomagnetic Field
= Meter/Kg
Assuming Gravitational Waves Propagate at the Velocity of Light --
= 1/(c-squared)(epsilon0)
= 9.316E-27 Meter/Kg