INSPECT search on "ball lightning" from 1989 - Apr/1996
-- NOT FOR COMMERCIAL USE --
96 citations (below)
Citation: 1 of 96
Accession No.: 5289239.
Author: Lowke-J-J.
Author Affil.: Div. of Appl. Phys., CSIRO, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Title: A theory of ball lightning as an electric discharge.
Source: Journal of Physics D (Applied Physics). vol.29, no.5. pp.
1237-44. 14 May 1996.
References: 49 refs.
ISSN: 0022-3727.
CODEN: JPAPBE.
Language: eng.
Year: 1996.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: theoretical or mathematical (T).
Report No.: CCCC: 0022-3727/96/051237+08$19.50.
Pub. Country: UK.
Class. Code: A9260P. A5280. A5280H.
Subject: corona. discharges-electric. lightning.
Identifiers: plasma. atmosphere. theory. ball lightning. electric
discharge. ion transport equations. electron transport
equations. Poisson`s equation. Poisson. continuously
varying. microsecond variability. corona-like discharge.
electric field. lightning strike. preferred conducting path.
formation. lifetime. energy source. motion.
Abstract: It is proposed, on the basis of solutions of electron and ion
transport equations, together with Poisson`s equation, that
ball lightning is an electric discharge which is continuously
varying on a microsecond time scale. It is further proposed
that this corona-like discharge is sustained by electric
fields associated with charges from a lightning strike
dispersing along preferred conducting paths in the Earth. The
theory gives an explanation of the formation, lifetime, energy
source and motion of ball lightning.
UW Load Date: 9606.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 2 of 96
Accession No.: 5236224.
Author: Amirov-A-K. Bychkov-V-L.
Author Affil.: Inst. of High Temp., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, Russia.
Title: Influence of atmospheric thunderstorm conditions on the life
time of ball lightning.
Source: Physica Scripta. vol.53, no.2. pp. 252-5. Feb. 1996.
References: 22 refs.
ISSN: 0031-8949.
CODEN: PHSTBO.
Language: eng.
Year: 1996.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: theoretical or mathematical (T).
Pub. Country: Sweden.
Class. Code: A9260P. A9260Q. A9260J.
Subject: atmospheric-humidity. lightning. statistical-analysis.
thunderstorms.
Identifiers: atmospheric thunderstorm conditions. ball lightning. rank
correlation method. thunderstorm influence. atmospheric
humidity. electric field strength. statistical analysis.
Abstract: A rank correlation method was applied to investigate the
influence of atmospheric thunderstorm conditions on the life
time (observation time) of ball lightning (BL). Data from the
PC Stakhavov-Keul-Bychkov Data Bank on BL were used. For the
analysis a ranking of BL over sizes has been made and a
ranking of atmospheric conditions of the BL observations in
respect to humidity and of thunderstorm conditions in respect
to electric field strength of the atmosphere ground layer have
been made. Statistical analysis reveals that both the
increase of the humidity and of the electric field strength
decreases the BL life time. These results are discussed from
the point of view of the different BL models.
UW Load Date: 9604.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 3 of 96
Accession No.: 5168280.
Author: Zou-You-Suo.
Author Affil.: Inst. of Atmos. Phys., Chinese Aacd. of Sci., Beijing, China.
Title: Some physical considerations for unusual atmospheric lights
observed in Norway.
Source: Physica Scripta. vol.52, no.6. pp. 726-30. Dec. 1995.
References: 21 refs.
ISSN: 0031-8949.
CODEN: PHSTBO.
Language: eng.
Year: 1995.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: experimental (X).
Contract No.: PFR WI3BON;.
Pub. Country: Sweden.
Class. Code: A9410Q. A9260P.
Subject: atmospheric-radiation. emission. lightning. plasma-waves.
solitons.
Identifiers: physical considerations. unusual atmospheric lights. Norway.
nonlinear wave particle interactions. turbulent plasma. wave
vortex interaction. fireball vortex structure. plasma
solitons. plasma ball lightning.
Abstract: Some unusual atmospheric lights observed in Norway have been
explained as the results of nonlinear wave-particle
interactions based on turbulent plasma theory and wave-vortex
interaction as well as laboratory experiments on rocks. The
paper also points out that the atmospheric lights have
provided evidence for the vortex structure of fireballs and
for the physical mechanism of wave-particle interaction for
the formation of plasma ball lightning and solitons.
UW Load Date: 9601.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 4 of 96
Accession No.: 5144931.
Author: Protasevich-E-T.
Author Affil.: Tomsk Polytech. Univ., Russia.
Title: Air discharge pecularities at non-uniform humidity and
pressure 1-20 torr.
Source: Published by: Inst. Electr. Eng. Japan. Tokyo, Japan. 1995.
Conf. Title: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Gas
Discharges and Their Applications. Tokyo, Japan. pp. 52-4
vol.2. 11-15 Sept. 1995.
ISBN: 4886864996.
Language: eng.
Year: 1995.
Pub. Type: conference-proceeding (C).
Treatment: EXPERIMENTAL (X).
Num. Indexing: pressure 1.3E+02 to 2.7E+03 Pa.
Pub. Country: Japan.
Class. Code: A9260P. A9130B. A8670G. A8670L. A5250.
Subject: air-pollution-measurement. atmospheric-radiation.
earthquakes. lightning. nuclear-explosions. plasma.
plasma-production. radioactive-pollution.
Identifiers: humidity. pressure. gas-discharge plasma. water vapour.
air discharge pecularities. air insulation. cool
nonequilibrium plasma. lifetime. physico-chemical processes.
atmospheric electricity phenomena. St. Elmo's fire. ball
lightning. bead lightning. atmosphere glow. energy-active
zones. earthquakes. underground nuclear explosions. natural
electromagnetic background. radioactive pollution. 1 to 20
torr.
Abstract: The authors describe the properties of gas-discharge plasma
and the possibility of its variations on account of the
control of water vapour concentration in air insulation. It
has been shown, preliminarily, that there is an optimal value
of air humidity for each pressure value, which leads to the
formation of cool nonequilibrium plasma with a lifetime from
tens of milliseconds to seconds. The understanding of the
mechanisms of the physico-chemical processes in such plasma
offers to develop the principles of control of the atmospheric
phenomena and to explain the nature of such atmospheric
electricity phenomena as St. Elmo's fire, ball lightning,
bead lightning and the atmosphere glowing in energy-active
zones (vicinities of earthquakes, underground nuclear
explosions, etc.). Causes of the initiation of the natural
electromagnetic background, its effect on the atmosphere and
environment are considered. The article presents a technique
for recording radioactive pollution by measuring radiation in
the superhigh frequency region.
UW Load Date: 9512.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 5 of 96
Accession No.: 5144292.
Author: Lowke-J-J.
Author Affil.: Div. of Appl. Phys., CSIRO, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Title: Theory of ball lightning as an electric discharge.
Source: Published by: Inst. Electr. Eng. Japan. Tokyo, Japan. 1995.
References: 20 refs.
Conf. Title: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Gas
Discharges and Their Applications. Tokyo, Japan. pp. 258-61
vol.1. 11-15 Sept. 1995.
ISBN: 4886864996.
Language: eng.
Year: 1995.
Pub. Type: conference-proceeding (C).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Japan.
Class. Code: A9260P. A0250. A5280H.
Subject: electric-fields. glow-discharges. lightning. plasma.
Poisson-distribution.
Identifiers: electric discharge. ball lightning. electron transport
equations. ion transport equations. Poisson's equation.
continuously varying discharge. corona like discharge.
electric fields. lightning strike. conducting paths. glow
discharge. convective cooling.
Abstract: It is proposed, on the basis of solutions of electron
transport and ion transport equations, together with Poisson's
equation, that ball lightning is an electric discharge which
is continuously varying on a microsecond time scale. It is
further proposed that this corona-like discharge is sustained
by electric fields associated with charges from a lightning
strike dispersing along preferred conducting paths in the
Earth.
UW Load Date: 9512.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 6 of 96
Accession No.: 5094891.
Author: Raiser-R. Lortz-D.
Author Affil.: Bayreuth Univ., Germany.
Title: Ball lightning as an example of a magnetohydrodynamic
equilibrium.
Source: Physical Review E (Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and
Related Interdisciplinary Topics). vol.52, no.3, pt.B. pp.
3034-44. Sept. 1995.
References: 23 refs.
ISSN: 1063-651X.
CODEN: PLEEE8.
Language: eng.
Year: 1995.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Report No.: CCCC: 1063-651X/95/52(3)/3034(11)/$06.00.
Pub. Country: USA.
Class. Code: A9260P. A5230. A5235P. A5225L. A5225F. A5255. A5280.
Subject: lightning. plasma-confinement. plasma-instability.
plasma-magnetohydrodynamics. plasma-pressure.
plasma-transport-processes.
Identifiers: magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium. ball lightning.
lightning-induced fireballs. decaying magnetic field.
vanishing magnetic field. singly connected plasma region.
atmospheric pressure confinement. spherical plasma boundary.
pressure profile perturbation. current profile perturbation.
spherical plasma boundary deformation. nonspherical boundary.
stability.
Abstract: Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria appropriate for describing ball
lightning are discussed in this paper. It is argued that
lightning-induced fireballs should have a magnetic field
decaying at infinity. Such equilibria, in fact, have a
vanishing magnetic field outside a singly connected plasma
region and are confined by the atmospheric pressure only. An
equilibrium of this type with a spherical plasma boundary is
investigated, and characteristic quantities are computed.
Perturbation of the pressure and current profiles leads to
deformation of the spherical plasma boundary, thus indicating
the existence of a large class of equilibria with a
nonspherical boundary. Finally, some remarks are made
concerning the stability of these equilibria.
UW Load Date: 9511.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 7 of 96
Accession No.: 5078516.
Author: Amirov-A-K. Bychkov-V-L.
Author Affil.: Inst. of High Temp., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, Russia.
Title: Correlation analysis of ball lightning distribution over
colors of the SKB data bank.
Source: Physica Scripta. vol.52, no.2. pp. 222-4. Aug. 1995.
References: 10 refs.
ISSN: 0031-8949.
CODEN: PHSTBO.
Language: eng.
Year: 1995.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Sweden.
Class. Code: A9260P.
Subject: collections-of-physical-data. colour. lightning.
optical-correlation.
Identifiers: correlation analysis. ball lightning distribution. SKB data
bank. Stakhanov Bychkov Keul data bank. color.
Abstract: A correlation analysis of ball lightning (BL) distribution
over colors has been made using the information from the
Stakhanov-Bychkov-Keul data bank. A total of 18 factors,
which could affect the observers perception, were analyzed for
six main colors of BL. The correlation coefficients for all
the factors but four turned out to be in the 95% confidence
interval from 0.903 to 1 of correlation coefficients for
random samplings. Four factors falling out of this range are:
observation in September, during night time and before
thunderstorm and disappearance of BL through decay. Physical
and physiological optics reasons for such a result are
discussed.
UW Load Date: 9510.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 8 of 96
Accession No.: 4994510.
Author: Alexeff-I. Rader-M.
Author Affil.: Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Tennessee Univ., Knoxville,
TN, USA.
Title: Possible precursors of ball lightning-observation of closed
loops in high-voltage discharges.
Source: Fusion Technology. vol.27, no.3. pp. 271-3. May 1995.
References: 5 refs.
ISSN: 0748-1896.
CODEN: FUSTE8.
Language: eng.
Year: 1995.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: EXPERIMENTAL (X).
Report No.: CCCC: 0748-1896/95/$3.00.
Pub. Country: USA.
Class. Code: A9260P. A5280M. A2852J.
Subject: fusion-reactor-theory. lightning. sparks.
Identifiers: ball lightning. closed loops. ultrahigh voltage discharges.
Abstract: Several hundred photographs of ultrahigh voltage discharges
have been obtained that show closed current loops. These
closed current loops may be precursors of ball lightning. One
feature of these discharges may explain why observations of
ball lightning may be infrequent; that is, there is a
distinct threshold in voltage and/or current below which the
closed loops do not occur. This threshold current fits other
experimental data but is well above the usually observed
currents in natural lightning.
UW Load Date: 9507.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 9 of 96
Accession No.: 4994509.
Author: Reece-Roth-J.
Author Affil.: Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN, USA.
Title: Ball lightning: What nature is trying to tell the plasma
research community.
Source: Fusion Technology. vol.27, no.3. pp. 255-70. May 1995.
References: 20 refs.
ISSN: 0748-1896.
CODEN: FUSTE8.
Language: eng.
Year: 1995.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Report No.: CCCC: 0748-1896/95/$3.00.
Pub. Country: USA.
Class. Code: A9260P. A2852J.
Subject: fusion-reactor-theory. lightning.
Identifiers: ball lightning. energy storage. plasma-related phenomenon.
magnetic energy storage.
Abstract: Ball lightning has been extensively observed in atmospheric
air, usually in association with thunderstorms, by untrained
observers who were not in a position to make careful
observations. These chance sightings have been documented by
polling observers, who constitute perhaps 5% of the adult U.S.
population. Unfortunately, ball lightning is not accessible
to scientific analysis because it cannot be reproduced in the
laboratory under controlled conditions. Natural ball
lightning has been observed to last longer than 90 s and to
have diameters from 1 cm to several metres. The energy
density of a few lightning balls has been observed to be as
high as 20 000 J/cm/sup 3/, well above the limit of chemical
energy storage of, for example, TNT at 2000 J/cm/sup 3/. Such
observations suggest a plasma-related phenomenon with
significant magnetic energy storage. If this is the case,
ball lightning should have very interesting implications for
fusion research, industrial plasma engineering, and military
applications, as well as being of great theoretical and
practical interest to the plasma research community.
UW Load Date: 9507.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 10 of 96
Accession No.: 4971529.
Author: Maiorov-S-A. Tkachev-A-N. Yakovlenko-S-I.
Author Affil.: Gen. Phys. Inst., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, Russia.
Title: Metastable state of supercooled plasma.
Source: Physica Scripta. vol.51, no.4. pp. 498-516. April 1994.
References: 23 refs.
ISSN: 0031-8949.
CODEN: PHSTBO.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Sweden.
Class. Code: A5225D. A5225F. A5225K. A5225L. A5265. A5220H.
Subject: Fokker-Planck-equation. ion-recombination.
metastable-states. plasma-collision-processes.
plasma-density. plasma-simulation. plasma-temperature.
plasma-transport-processes.
Identifiers: supercooled plasma. metastable states. computer ab initio
simulation. analytical theory. Coulomb plasma. plasma
ionization degree. three body recombination. plasmoids.
electron energy distribution functions. Coulomb collisions.
stochastically isolated plasma. electron number. plasma
total energy. isotherms. electron density.
Abstract: The computer ab initio simulation and analytical theory, that
revealed unexpected non-ergodic properties of a classical
Coulomb plasma, is overviewed. The results of a
many-charged-particles system simulation predict the possible
existence of a real metastable plasma, supercooled with
respect to its ionization degree. The three-body
recombination at this state is suppressed. The existence of
such a plasma state is a consequence of the entropy
conservation in isolated Hamiltonian systems free from any
stochastic action from the outside (external stochastic
disturbance). The occurrence of a metastable supercooled
plasma (rather similar to a supercooled vapor or superheated
liquid) depends on two conditions: First, all the charged
particles should behave exactly according to the laws of
classical mechanics (hence, most negatively-charged particles
should preferably be heavy ions). Second, the plasma
ionization degree should be sufficiently high (>10/sup -3/).
It is shown from thermodynamic consideration that a mixture of
supercooled plasma with a perfect (ideal) gas might form a
plasmoid of the ball-lightning type.
UW Load Date: 9506.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 11 of 96
Accession No.: 4947185.
Author: Grigorev-A-I. Grigoreva-I-D. Shiryaeva-S-O.
Author Affil.: Yaroslavl State Univ., Russia.
Title: Stability of ball lightning against its unneutralized
self-charge.
Source: Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki. vol.65, no.2. pp. 1-10. Feb.
1995.
References: 13 refs.
Trans. Title: Technical Physics. vol.40, no.2. pp. 117-21. Feb. 1995.
ISSN: 0044-4642. 1063-7842.
CODEN: ZTEFA3. TEPHEX.
Language: eng.
Year: 1995.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Russia. USA.
Class. Code: A9260P. A5235P. A4720. A4765.
Subject: electrohydrodynamics. interface-phenomena. lightning.
plasma-instability. Rayleigh-Taylor-instability.
Identifiers: ball lightning. unneutralized self-charge.
electrohydrodynamic stability. spherical interface.
immiscible fluids. Taylor instabilities. Rayleigh
instabilities. dimensionless physical parameters. critical
condition. interfacial capillary-wave instability onset.
gravity. electric field. self-charge.
Abstract: We investigate the electrohydrodynamic stability of the
spherical interface between immiscible fluids against the
Taylor and Rayleigh instabilities and obtain a functional
relation between two dimensionless physical parameters that
characterize the critical condition for the onset of the
capillary-wave instability at the interface under the
influence of gravity and in the electric field of the
self-charge, respectively.
UW Load Date: 9505.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 12 of 96
Accession No.: 4921927.
Author: Amirov-A-Kh. Bychkov-V-L.
Author Affil.: Inst. of High Temp., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, Russia.
Title: Ball lightning diameter-lifetime statistical analysis of SKB
databank.
Source: Physica Scripta. vol.51, no.3. pp. 413-16. March 1995.
References: 11 refs.
ISSN: 0031-8949.
CODEN: PHSTBO.
Language: eng.
Year: 1995.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: EXPERIMENTAL (X). THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Sweden.
Class. Code: A9260P. A0250.
Subject: diameter-measurement. lightning. statistical-analysis.
Identifiers: ball lightning. diameter statistical analysis. lifetime
statistical analysis. SKB databank. regression analysis.
radiation losses.
Abstract: Revelation of the significance of diameter as a factor for the
lifetime as a parameter for different ways of Ball Lightning
(BL) disappearance has been made. Methods for non-parametric
regression analysis have been applied for pairs
diameter-radiation losses in correspondence to BL
disappearance. BL diameter as a factor turned out to be
significant for BL lifetime in the case of explosion and decay
and insignificant in the case of extinction. Dependence
logarithm of radiation losses-logarithm of BL volume obtained
with the help of nonparametric regression treatment turned out
to be different according to BL ways of disappearance.
UW Load Date: 9504.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 13 of 96
Accession No.: 4863900.
Author: Roth-J-R.
Author Affil.: Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Tennessee Univ., Knoxville,
TN, USA.
Title: Ball lightning: What nature is trying to tell the plasma
research community.
Source: Published by: IEEE. New York, NY, USA.
References: 5 refs.
Conf. Title: IEEE Conference Record - Abstracts. 1993 IEEE International
Conference on Plasma Science (Cat. No.93CH3334-0). Vancouver,
BC, Canada. pp. 109. IEEE Nucl & Plasma Sci. Soc. Phys.
Dept., Univ. British Columbia. 7-9 June 1993.
ISBN: 0780313607.
Language: eng.
Pub. Type: conference-proceeding (C).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: USA.
Class. Code: A2852J.
Subject: fusion-reactor-theory. lightning.
Identifiers: plasma research. energy density. lightning balls. chemical
energy storage. magnetic energy storage. plasma-related
phenomenon. ball lightning. fusion research. confinement
duration. industrial plasma engineering. glow discharge.
atmospheric surface treatment. military applications.
nonmaiming military antipersonnel weapon.
Abstract: Summary form only given. The energy density of a few
lightning balls has been observed to be as high as 20,000
joules per cubic centimeter, well above the limit of chemical
energy storage of, for example, TNT at 2000 joules per cubic
centimeter. This suggests magnetic energy storage in a
plasma-related phenomenon, which should be of great
theoretical and practical interest to the plasma research
community. If the physical processes responsible for ball
lightning were understood, this would have very interesting
implications for fusion research (because of their long
confinement duration, high energy density, and ability to
operate at one atmosphere); for industrial plasma engineering
(because of their ability to exist for long durations as a
glow discharge at one atmosphere, and provide active species
for atmospheric surface treatment of materials); and for
military applications (because of the observed ability of ball
lightning to cause stunning and death), and perhaps provide a
nonlethal and nonmaiming military antipersonnel weapon, as
well as a potential form of portable electromagnetic pulse to
distable sophisticated electronic weapons.
UW Load Date: 9502.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 14 of 96
Accession No.: 4857516.
Title: International Conference on Plasma Sciences (ICOPS).
Source: Published by: IEEE. New York, NY, USA. 250 pp.
Conf. Title: International Conference on Plasma Sciences (ICOPS).
Vancouver, BC, Canada. IEEE Nucl & Plasma Sci. Soc. Phys.
Dept., Univ. British Columbia. 7-9 June 1993.
ISBN: 0780313607.
Language: eng.
Pub. Type: conference-proceeding (C).
Treatment: GENERAL OR REVIEW (R).
Pub. Country: USA.
Class. Code: A0130C. A5250J. A5270. A2852J. B1350. B3120G. B2315.
Subject: electron-beams. fusion-reactor-design. fusion-reactors.
ion-beams. lighting. lightning. microwave-devices.
plasma-devices. plasma-diagnostics. plasma-production.
plasma-production-by-laser. plasma-switches.
Identifiers: intense electron beams. environmental science. EM launches.
ion beams. vacuum electronics. laser-produced plasmas.
plasma phenomena. energy. space plasmas. magnetic fusion.
plasma processing. beam microwaves. ball lightning.
spherical plasma configurations. magnetohydrodynamics.
gaseous electronics. electrical gas discharges. ultrafast
Z-pinches. X-ray lasers. microwave-plasma interactions.
plasma diagnostics. fast-opening switches. computational
plasma science. ETH launchers. fast wave M/W devices.
plasma focus. solid-state plasmas. lighting.
Abstract: The following topics are dealt with: intense electron and ion
beams; vacuum electronics, laser-produced plasmas; basic
plasma phenomena; environmental and energy issues; space
plasmas; magnetic fusion; plasma processing; intense beam
microwaves; ball lightning and spherical plasma
configurations; magnetohydrodynamics; gaseous electronics
and electrical gas discharges; ultrafast Z-pinches and X-ray
lasers; microwave-plasma interactions; plasma diagnostics;
fast-opening switches; computational plasma science; EM and
ETH launchers; fast wave M/W devices; plasma focus;
solid-state plasmas and switches; plasmas for lighting.
UW Load Date: 9501.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 15 of 96
Accession No.: 4833277.
Author: Smirnov-B-M. Strizhev-A-Ju.
Author Affil.: Inst. of High Temp., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, Russia.
Title: Analysis of observational ball lightning by correlation
methods.
Source: Physica Scripta. vol.50, no.5. pp. 606-8. Nov. 1994.
References: 11 refs.
ISSN: 0031-8949.
CODEN: PHSTBO.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Sweden.
Class. Code: A9260P.
Subject: lightning.
Identifiers: observational ball lightning. correlation methods. indoors.
outdoors. correlation analysis.
Abstract: The distributions of observational ball lightning indoors and
outdoors on some parameters are compared on the basis of
methods of correlation analysis.
UW Load Date: 9412.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 16 of 96
Accession No.: 4833275.
Author: Bychkov-V-L.
Author Affil.: Inst. of High Temp., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, Russia.
Title: Polymer ball lightning model.
Source: Physica Scripta. vol.50, no.5. pp. 591-9. Nov. 1994.
References: 33 refs.
ISSN: 0031-8949.
CODEN: PHSTBO.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Sweden.
Class. Code: A9260P. A9260Q. A0555. A3520B. A4660. A3620C.
Subject: fractals. lightning. macromolecules.
molecular-configurations. polymers. rheology.
thunderstorms.
Identifiers: polymer molecules. polymer ball lightning model. structure.
polymer net. fractal properties. rheologic properties.
dielectric properties. electrostatic energy discharges.
thunderstorms.
Abstract: A theoretical model of ball lightning (BL) is presented.
According to this model the BL is an aggregate of polymer
molecules. These macromolecules are interknitted or sewed
together, and therefore the structure is a polymer net with
the corresponding rheologic and fractal properties. Because
of the dielectric properties such BL can accumulate and store
large amounts of the electrostatic energy discharges of
thunderstorms. The theory gives a reasonable agreement with
observational values of the formation time, stored energy and
the life time. It also explains some rheological BL
properties, form and the appearance from "nowhere".
UW Load Date: 9412.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 17 of 96
Accession No.: 4833274.
Author: Amirov-A-Kh. Bychkov-V-L.
Author Affil.: Inst. of High Temp., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, Russia.
Title: ANOVA of the parameters of ball lightning from the SKB data
bank in correspondence to its location (indoors/outdoors).
Source: Physica Scripta. vol.50, no.5. pp. 588-90. Nov. 1994.
References: 8 refs.
ISSN: 0031-8949.
CODEN: PHSTBO.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Pub. Country: Sweden.
Class. Code: A9260P.
Subject: lightning.
Identifiers: variance analysis. ball lightning parameters.
Stakhanov-Bychkov-Keul data bank. indoor location. outdoor
location. diameter. lifetime. radiation power. colour.
Abstract: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of several parameters from the
Stakhanov-Bychkov-Keul data bank on ball lightning (BL) has
been made. The results show that the factor of the BL
location (indoors/outdoors) proves to be significant for such
parameters as diameter, lifetime and the radiation power (in
comparison with the power of an incandescent lamp); the
distribution of BL by colour does not depend on its location.
UW Load Date: 9412.
---- End of Citation ----
Citation: 18 of 96
Accession No.: 4751760.
Author: Mayorov-S-A. Tkachev-A-N. Yakovlenko-S-I.
Author Affil.: Inst. of Gen. Phys., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, Russia.
Title: Metastable supercooled plasma.
Source: Uspekhi Fizicheskii Nauk. vol.164, no.3. pp. 297-307. March
1994.
References: 22 refs.
Trans. Title: Physics-Uspekhi. vol.37, no.3. pp. 279-88. March 1994.
ISSN: 0042-1294. 1063-7869.
CODEN: UFNAAG. PHUSEY.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Russia. UK.
Class. Code: A5265. A5225K.
Subject: ab-initio-calculations. entropy. ionisation.
plasma-simulation. supercooling. thermodynamic-properties.
Identifiers: metastable supercooled plasma. computer ab initio simulation.
analytical theory. nonergodic properties. classical Coulomb
plasma. review. many-charged-particle system simulation.
ionisation. entropy conservation. isolated Hamiltonian
systems. stochastic action. classical mechanics. plasma
ionisation degree. thermodynamic considerations. plasmoid.
ball lightning.
Abstract: The computer ab initio simulation and analytical theory that
revealed unexpected nonergodic properties in a classical
Coulomb plasma are reviewed. The results of a
many-charged-particle system simulation predict the possible
existence of a real metastable plasma, supercooled with
respect to its degree of ionisation. The existence of such a
plasma state is a consequence of the entropy conservation in
isolated Hamiltonian systems free from any stochastic action
from outside. The occurrence of a metastable supercooled
plasma-similar to a supercooled vapour or superheated
liquid-depends on two conditions. Firstly, all the charged
particles should behave exactly according to the laws of
classical mechanics (hence, most negatively-charged particles
should preferably be heavy ions). Secondly, the plasma
ionisation degree should be sufficiently high ( alpha >10/sup
-3/). It is shown from thermodynamic considerations that a
mixture of a supercooled plasma with an ideal gas might form a
plasmoid of the ball lightning type.
UW Load Date: 9410.
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Citation: 19 of 96
Accession No.: 4729592.
Author: Amirov-A-Kh. Bychkov-V-L.
Author Affil.: Inst. of High Temp., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, Russia.
Title: ANOVA of several parameters of the SKB data bank on ball
lightning.
Source: Physica Scripta. vol.50, no.1. pp. 93-6. July 1994.
References: 7 refs.
ISSN: 0031-8949.
CODEN: PHSTBO.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Sweden.
Class. Code: A9260P.
Subject: lightning.
Identifiers: SKB data bank. ball lightning. ANOVA.
Stakhanov-Keul-Bychkov data bank. diameter. lifetime.
parameters.
Abstract: Revelation of the significance factors ball lightning (BL)
color and way of disappearance for parameters BL diameter and
BL lifetime was made. The information used in the analysis
was from the Stakhanov-Keul-Bychkov data bank on ball
lightning. The factor BL color turned out to be insignificant
for the parameters BL lifetime and BL diameter while the
factor BL way of disappearance was significant for them.
UW Load Date: 9409.
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Citation: 20 of 96
Accession No.: 4723148.
Author: Handel-P-H. Leitner-J-F.
Author Affil.: Dept. of Phys. & Astron., Missouri Univ., St. Louis, MO, USA.
Title: Development of the maser-caviton ball lightning theory.
Source: Journal of Geophysical Research. vol.99, no.D5. pp.
10689-91. 20 May 1994.
References: 9 refs.
Conf. Title: Ninth International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity
(ICAE). St. Petersburg, Russia. 15-19 June 1992.
ISSN: 0148-0227.
CODEN: JGREA2.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: conference-proceeding (C).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Report No.: CCCC: 0148-0227/94/93JD-01021$05.00.
Pub. Country: USA.
Class. Code: A9260P.
Subject: lightning. masers.
Identifiers: maser-caviton ball lightning theory. photon number evolution.
single-mode maser. atmospheric maser. localized high-field
soliton. plasma. VHF energy. electric field pulse.
electrically shielded enclosures. electrostatic explosion.
motion. buoyancy. maser spiking phenomena.
Abstract: The maser-caviton ball lightning theory is briefly described,
is compared with the available observations of ball lightning,
and is further developed on the basis of the rate equations
governing the evolution of the photon number in a single-mode
maser. The focus of this paper is on the explosive growth of
the photon number at the premature demise of a large
atmospheric maser. Ball lightning is a localized high-field
soliton forming a cavity surrounded by plasma in this theory.
The source of VHF energy is a large atmospheric maser
occupying a volume of several cubic miles for the case of open
air ball lightning, and occupying the volume of the room in
electrically shielded confined ball lightning cases. The
main, well-known features of ball lightning, including its
appearance immediately after a strong electric field pulse
usually caused by lightning, its passage through closed
windows and other dielectrics, its always harmless existence
in electrically shielded (e.g. metallic) enclosures, without
the possibility of electrostatic-explosive demise, its total
absence in the vicinity of high peaks or lightning observation
stations, as well as the resonant character of its positioning
and motion with respect to conducting bodies, and its apparent
lack of buoyancy in the air can all be explained consistently
with this theory. The explosive demise of open air ball
lightning is described in terms of maser spiking phenomena
with the help of elementary equations.
UW Load Date: 9408.
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Citation: 21 of 96
Accession No.: 4718161.
Author: Golka-R-K-Jr.
Author Affil.: Golka Assoc., Brockton, MA, USA.
Title: Laboratory-produced ball lightning.
Source: Journal of Geophysical Research. vol.99, no.D5. pp.
10679-81. 20 May 1994.
References: 8 refs.
Conf. Title: Ninth International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity
(ICAE). St. Petersburg, Russia. 15-19 June 1992.
ISSN: 0148-0227.
CODEN: JGREA2.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: conference-proceeding (C).
Treatment: EXPERIMENTAL (X).
Report No.: CCCC: 0148-0227/94/93JD-03579$05.00.
Pub. Country: USA.
Class. Code: A9260P. A5290. A5280.
Subject: discharges-electric. lightning. plasma.
Identifiers: atmosphere electricity. laboratory-produced. ball lightning.
laboratory experiment. high current. cavity-formed plasmode.
microwave oven.
Abstract: For 25 years the author has actively been searching for the
true nature of ball lightning and attempting to reproduce it
at will in the laboratory. As one might expect, many
unidentified lights in the atmosphere have been called ball
lightning, including Texas Maffa lights (automobile
headlights), flying saucers (UFOs), swamp gas in Ann Arbor,
Michigan, etc. For 15 years the author thought ball lightning
was strictly a high-voltage phenomenon. It was not until 1984
when he was short-circuiting the electrical output of a diesel
electric railroad locomotive that he realized that the
phenomenon was related more to a high current. Although he is
hoping for some other types of ball lightning to emerge such
as strictly electrostatic-electromagnetic manifestations, he
has been unlucky in finding laboratory provable evidence.
Cavity-formed plasmodes can be made by putting a 2-inch
burning candle in a home kitchen microwave oven. The
plasmodes float around for as long as the microwave energy is
present.
UW Load Date: 9408.
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Citation: 22 of 96
Accession No.: 4703426.
Title: Ninth International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity
(ICAE).
Source: Journal of Geophysical Research. vol.99, no.D5. 20 May 1994.
Conf. Title: Ninth International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity
(ICAE). St. Petersburg, Russia. 15-19 June 1992.
ISSN: 0148-0227.
CODEN: JGREA2.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: conference-proceeding (C).
Pub. Country: USA.
Class. Code: A0130C. A9260Q. A9260P.
Subject: atmospheric-electricity. lightning. thunderstorms.
Identifiers: surface layer. charge. ice. thunderstorms. lightning.
ball lightning. mobility.
Abstract: The following topics were dealt with: surface layer, charge,
ice, thunderstorms, lightning, ball lightning, mobility.
UW Load Date: 9407.
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Citation: 23 of 96
Accession No.: 4701809.
Author: Gaidukov-N-I.
Title: Steady-state motion of the ball lighting observed by M.T.
Dmitriev at the Onega River.
Source: Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki. vol.64, no.2. pp. 38-48. Feb.
1994.
References: 15 refs.
Trans. Title: Technical Physics. vol.39, no.2. pp. 137-42. Feb. 1994.
ISSN: 0044-4642. 1063-7842.
CODEN: ZTEFA3. TEPHEX.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Russia. USA.
Class. Code: A9260P. A9330G.
Subject: electric-charge. electrostatics. lightning.
magnetic-fields.
Identifiers: steady-state motion. ball lighting. Onega River. electric
charge. electrostatic attraction. Stokes force. wind.
magnetic field orientation. Russia.
Abstract: The unique and well-known observation of motion of ball
lightning by Prof. M.T. Dmitriev and the Onega River can be
described by a fairly simple system of equations. Certain
simplifying assumptions are used in the construction of this
system. This system of equations leads an estimate of the
electric charge in ball lightning moving under the influence
of electrostatic attraction and the Stokes force created by
wind. This system of equations also yields the orientation of
the magnetic field of the ball lightning.
UW Load Date: 9407.
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Citation: 24 of 96
Accession No.: 4701764.
Author: Gaidukov-N-I.
Author Affil.: Pedagogical Inst., Orekhovo-Zuevo, Russia.
Title: Equations of motion of ball lightning in the magnetic field of
a hanging conductor.
Source: Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki. vol.63, no.10. pp. 20-9. Oct.
1993.
References: 18 refs.
Trans. Title: Technical Physics. vol.38, no.10. pp. 844-8. Oct. 1993.
ISSN: 0044-4642. 1063-7842.
CODEN: ZTEFA3. TEPHEX.
Language: eng.
Year: 1993.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Russia. USA.
Class. Code: A9260P.
Subject: lightning. magnetic-field-effects. magnetic-fields.
Identifiers: equations of motion. ball lightning. external magnetic
field. hanging conductor. high-velocity air flow. rolling.
Abstract: Observations of the motion of ball lightning in high-velocity
air flow and observations of the "rolling" of ball lightning
along a conductor are used to determine the configuration of
the magnetic field of the ball lightning. The equations of
motion of ball lightning in an external magnetic field are
constructed.
UW Load Date: 9407.
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Citation: 25 of 96
Accession No.: 4696811.
Author: Gaidukov-N-I.
Author Affil.: Pedagogical Inst., Orekhovo-Zuevo, Russia.
Title: Hydrodynamic model of the interaction of ball lightning with
the airstream of an aircraft in flight.
Source: Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki. vol.63, no.9. pp. 16-25.
Sept. 1993.
References: 22 refs.
Trans. Title: Technical Physics. vol.38, no.9. pp. 747-51. Sept. 1993.
ISSN: 0044-4642. 1063-7842.
CODEN: ZTEFA3. TEPHEX.
Language: eng.
Year: 1993.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Report No.: CCCC: 1063-7842/93/090747-05$10.00.
Pub. Country: Russia. USA.
Class. Code: A9260P.
Subject: atmospheric-movements. hydrodynamics. lightning.
Identifiers: large-radius ball lightning. airstream. aircraft in flight.
hydrodynamic model. equations of motion.
Abstract: Observations of the motion of large-radius ball lightning in
the airstreams of moving aircraft are used to determine its
equations of motion for a specially selected model, so that
its behavior can be investigated in various special cases
encountered in real environments. These equations have
applications in describing the interaction of lightning with
the airstream of an aircraft and in establishing flight
regimes that will ensure flight safety when an aircraft
encounters ball lightning of large radius.
UW Load Date: 9407.
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Citation: 26 of 96
Accession No.: 4678293.
Author: Alanakyan-Yu-R.
Title: Energy capacity of an electromagnetic vortex in the
atmosphere.
Source: Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki. vol.105,
no.3. pp. 601-13. March 1994.
References: 16 refs.
Trans. Title: Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics. vol.78,
no.3. pp. 320-6. March 1994.
ISSN: 0044-4510. 1063-7761.
CODEN: ZETFA7. JTPHES.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Report No.: CCCC: 1063-7761/94/030320-07$10.00.
Pub. Country: Russia. USA.
Class. Code: A5230. A9260P.
Subject: lightning. plasma-flow.
Identifiers: electromagnetic vortex. atmosphere. energy capacity.
self-localization. plasma. unneutralized charges.
high-frequency field. positively charged solid object.
hydrodynamic vortex. momentum transfer. ball lightning.
Abstract: The self-localization of an electromagnetic vortex is
investigated under conditions such that partial charge
separation occurs in the plasma that forms near the vortex:
outside the vortex there is an excess of electrons and inside
it there is an excess of positive charges. It is shown that
the presence of unneutralized charges increases the energy
content of the vortex without increasing the energy
dissipation of the high-frequency field in the plasma. The
lifetime of the vortex can thereby be substantially increased.
A mechanism is examined for confining a positively charged
solid object in the interior of the vortex. This body serves
as ballast and can retard the buoyant rise of the vortex in
the atmosphere. The question of the formation of a
hydrodynamic vortex at the periphery of an electromagnetic
vortex by transfer of momentum from a high-frequency field to
the surrounding medium is discussed; this affects the nature
of the motion of the vortex in a free atmosphere. It is shown
that the properties of the vortex are consistent with some of
the properties of ball lightning.
UW Load Date: 9406.
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Citation: 27 of 96
Accession No.: 4675921.
Author: Turner-D-J.
Author Affil.: Interface Anal. Centre, Bristol Univ., UK.
Title: The structure and stability of ball lightning.
Source: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A
(Physical Sciences and Engineering). vol.347, no.1682. pp.
83-111. 15 April 1994.
References: 33 refs.
ISSN: 0962-8428.
Language: eng.
Year: 1994.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: UK.
Class. Code: A9260P.
Subject: lightning. plasma.
Identifiers: ball lightning. stability. structure. shape. size range.
brightness. motion. energy content. central plasma core.
high-energy ion recombination. hydrated ions. hydration
zone. thermochemical refrigeration.
Abstract: The main characteristics of ball lightning are well
established. They include its general appearance (shape, size
range, brightness, etc.), its peculiar motion and, less
satisfactorily, its energy content. A remarkably consistent
picture emerges from the thousands of detailed descriptions
which are now available. There is, however, no such
consistency in the various hypotheses that have been put
forward to explain ball lightning. The only thing most of
them share is an ability to explain a few aspects of the
phenomenon at the expense of physically impossible
requirements in other areas. A model is described of a
central plasma core surrounded by a cooler, intermediate zone,
in which recombination of most or all of the high-energy ions
takes place. Further out is a zone in which temperatures are
low enough for any ions present to become extensively
hydrated. Hydrated ions can also form spontaneously in the
inner, hotter, parts of this hydration zone. Near the surface
of the ball is a region, quite essential to the model, in
which thermochemical refrigeration can take place.
UW Load Date: 9406.
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Citation: 28 of 96
Accession No.: 4670300.
Author: Smirnov-B-M.
Author Affil.: Inst. of High Temp., Moscow, Russia.
Title: Gasdynamics of a fractal ball.
Source: Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki. vol.63, no.4. pp. 190-3.
April 1993.
References: 16 refs.
Trans. Title: Technical Physics. vol.38, no.4. pp. 359-60. April 1993.
ISSN: 0044-4642. 1063-7842.
CODEN: ZTEFA3. TEPHEX.
Language: eng.
Year: 1993.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Report No.: CCCC: 1063-7842/93/040359-02$10.00.
Pub. Country: Russia. USA.
Class. Code: A4740D. A9260P.
Subject: aggregation. drag. fluid-dynamics. fractals. lightning.
Identifiers: gas dynamics. connected material. fractal ball. fractal
cluster. entangled fractal fibers. expansion. weakly
ionized vapor. condensation. solid particles. fractal
aggregates. external electric field. ball lightning.
surface tension. viscous layer. interface. Reynolds number.
kinematical viscosity. Stokes formula. drag force.
movement. air.
Abstract: A fractal cluster is a system of entangled fractal fibers.
This object is formed in a gas as a result of laser or
electrical discharge action on a surface. The expansion of
the weakly ionized vapor that is formed, which is accompanied
by the condensation of the vapor on the ions, leads to the
formation of solid particles that then join into fractal
aggregates. The latter, in turn, under the action of an
external electric field, then join into fractal fibers, out of
which are formed the fractal clusters. A physical object that
has the structure of a fractal cluster is ball lightning. The
gasdynamics of ball lightning has been studied thoroughly by
N.I. Gaidukov (1989). Without specifying in detail the
structure of ball lightning, he assumed that the material of
ball lightning is connected like a liquid, so that it can be
characterized by a surface tension. Moreover, the molecules
of air do not attach to it. Using this model, Gaidukov was
able to describe a large number of effects associated with
ball lightning: its passage through small holes and slits and
its capture by the trail of airplanes or helicopters. In the
next stage of the investigations, by analyzing the effects
associated with the sighting of ball lightning, Gaidukov
pointed out that to explain these effects it would be
necessary to postulate the absence of a viscous layer at the
interface between the ball lightning and the air. The authors
formulate this result by another means. They introduce the
Reynolds number Re=Rv/ nu , where nu =0.16 cm/sup 2//s is the
kinematical viscosity of the air. For low Reynolds numbers
the Stokes formula is valid, which gives C=6/Re. At large
Reynolds numbers the parameter C approximately 1 depends only
weakly on the Reynolds number. The conclusion of Gaidukov in
this terminology reduces to the statement that the parameter C
for ball lightning does not depend on the Reynolds number even
when that number is small. The article presents calculations
of the drag force experienced by a fractal cluster in its
movement through the air. The expression obtained supports
Gaidukov's conclusion.
UW Load Date: 9406.
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Citation: 29 of 96
Accession No.: 4655067.
Author: Gaidukov-N-I.
Author Affil.: Pedagogical Inst., Moscow, Russia.
Title: Magnetic field of ball lightning.
Source: Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. vol.31, no.6. pp. 1038.
Nov.-Dec. 1993.
Trans. Title: High Temperature. vol.31, no.6. pp. 954. Nov.-Dec. 1993.
ISSN: 0040-3644. 0018-151X.
CODEN: TVYTAP. HITEA4.
Language: eng.
Year: 1993.
Pub. Type: journal-article (J).
Treatment: THEORETICAL OR MATHEMATICAL (T).
Pub. Country: Russia. USA.
Class. Code: A9260P.
Subject: geomagnetism. lightning.
Identifiers: ball lightning. atmospheric flows. magnetic induction
vector. spherical coordinates. plasma object. thermodynamic
object. cylindrical coordinate system. electrodynamic
forces. drift motion. intrinsic electromagnetic field.
charge density. magnetization.
Abstract: Summary form only given. Analysis of the data on
experimentally observed motion of a ball lightning in various
atmospheric flows of air and its "rolling" along a conductor
with current helped establish the presence of a magnetic field
of the lightning. The components of the magnetic induction
vector of this field inside and outside the lightning are
determined in the spherical coordinates by the expressions
B/sub r/=B/sub 0/cos theta , B/sub theta /=-B/sub 0/sin theta
, 0