CHAPTER 11
THE ZERO POINT INTERACTION
Frank Znidarsic PE
fznidarsic@aol.com
...................................................................
HISTORY AND DISCOVERY PG 2
In the mid 1970s Ray Frank (the owner and president of
the Apparatus Engineering Company my former employer)
assigned me the task of building a ground monitoring relay. In
an effort to complete this assignment, I began to experiment
with coils, current transformers, and magnetic amplifiers.
I succeeded in developing the device. We sold many hundreds
of them to many mining companies. After work, I applied the
knowledge that I gained, at my day job, to the design of an
electronic levitational device. To my dismay I discovered
that no combination of electrical coils would induce a
gravitational field. In the mid 1990's a friend, Tom C.
Frank, gave me the book, "THE QUEST FOR ABSOLUTE ZERO" by Kurt
Mendelssohn. In his book Mendelssohn disclosed that the
relationship between the forces changed at cryogenic
temperatures. This was the clue that I needed. Things began
to come together. In 1989 I wrote my first book on the subject,
"Elementary Antigravity". (1) This book caught the eye of Ronald
Madison a far sighted manager at the Pennsylvania Electric
Company (my current employer). In 1991, Ron persuaded me to go
to Texas and visit with Dr. Harold Puthoff. Puthoff's work is
based on the ideas of Andrei Sakharov. My work is based of the
work of Kurt Mendelssohn. It is truly astounding that Puthoff
and I, each following separate paths, had independently arrived
at the same conclusions.
Pg 3
Prior to meeting Puthoff, I knew of a cryogenic relationship
between the forces of electromagnetism and gravity. Puthoff
explained that the link that I had discovered was the zero
point interaction. I have since discovered that similar zero
point interactions occur in non-cryogenic systems. The zero
point interaction is exhibited by all electrons with energies
lower than the Fermi level in an atom and by all waves with
lengths longer than the wavelength of evanescence in a plasma.
The remainder of this chapter is essentially a reprint of
chapter 10 of my first book "Elementary Antigravity". In
this reprint the relationship between the forces in a cryogenic
system will be explored. The study of cryogenics is very
instructive. A better understanding of the zero point
interaction can be gained through the study of cryogenic
phenomena.
INTRODUCTION
It is well known that superconductors offer no
resistance to electrical currents. Less well known, but even
more amazing, are the low temperature superfluids. These fluids
flow without friction. Once set into motion, they never slow
down. Quantum interactions are limited to atomic distances in
normal substances. In superconductors and superfluids quantum
interactions are observed on a macroscopic scale. The normal
interaction of the magnetic and electric field is very different
in a superconductor. In normal conductors dynamic changing
fields are required to induce other fields. In superconductors
static fields can also induce other fields. The sum of these
phenomena indicate that something unique is taking place.
Pg 4
A new look at the sum of these effects will lead to a deeper
understanding of the zero point interaction.
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD
The relationship between the electric and the magnetic
field has been known for many years. A very important, but
often overlooked, aspect of this relationship is the independence
of the two fields. The fact that a static magnetic and static
electric fields can exist alone independently of each other is
a very important property of the fields. For example, a
capacitor can have a static electric field while not possessing
a magnetic field. Likewise a bar magnet can have a static
magnetic field while not possessing a net electrical charge.
Pick Icon 11-1.
-------------- _______________
| |
| \
| / "R"
| \
| |
-------------- ---------------
SUPERCONDUCTIVE RESISTIVE
TWO CIRCUITS
Icon 11-1 shows a resistive and a superconductive circuit.
In the resistive circuit the electric field is isolated from
the current flow by resistor "R". For example, if resistor
"R" has an infinite resistance no current will flow and no
magnetic field will be produced. In a resistive circuit the
electric and the magnetic fields have a life of their own.
In the superconductive circuit the resistor, "R" no
longer exists. The electric field is dependent on the changing
magnetic field "F". The strength of the electric field varies
directly with the strength of a changing magnetic field. In a
superconductor, the electric and magnetic fields are always
coupled together. They do not have separate existences.
Pg 5
To confirm the nature of the coupling the result of an
experiment done by W. Meissner in 1933 will be reviewed. In
this experiment, a ordinary loop of wire is inserted into a
magnetic field. Pick Icon 11-1. Icon 11-1 shows a coil that
was moved from position "A", outside of a magnetic field,
to position "B", inside of a magnetic field.
------- --------
| | + | + + + |+ +
| | + | + + + |+ +
| | + | + + + |+ +
------- --------
"A" OUTSIDE MAG FIELD "B" INSIDE OF MAG FIELD
As expected a loop current is induced in the loop as it cuts
the lines of flux. This loop current dies down in time.
This time period (t) is determined by the intrinsic inductance
(L) and resistance (R) of the loop.
tR/L
Current final = (Current initial)/(2.73) Eq #1
The first loop of ordinary wire is removed and a
superconductive loop is now inserted into the magnetic field.
Icon 11-1 again depicts the loop being moved from position "A"
to position "B". As expected, the loop current persists
undiminished after the loop comes to rest at position "B".
This undiminished current is represented by Equation
#2.
Current final = Current initial Eq #2
The first experiment is repeated and a non-superconducting
loop of wire is inserted into the magnetic field. The current
is again allowed to die down (per Equation #1). After the
current drops to a value of zero, the stationary loop (loops
remains in position "B") is cooled until it becomes
superconductive. What happens?
Pg 6
Equation #2 predicts that the current should remain fixed
at zero. Astonishingly, the loop current reappears. 2
In a superconductor a steady state magnetic field is in all
cases symmetrically balanced by a steady current. Symmetry
is restored to the laws of electromagnetic induction. The
element of time is not a factor in the cryogenic electromagnetic
relationship. The independence of the electric and the magnetic
fields is lost at cryogenic temperatures. The electric and
magnetic fields merge together and act as a singel unified
force.
THE NUCLEAR FORCES
All forces, within a zero point system, should display
the same general tendency to merge. Pick Icon 11-2
Nuclear Magentic Electric Gravity
. | | . /
room | \ . \ / . /
temp | \ . \ / . /
| \ . \ / . /
| \ . | . /
| \. | . /
| .\ /
abs' | . / .
zero |________________________________________________
|limit of induction|
short - - - - - - RANGE - - - - - - - - - - long
THE ZERO POINT INTERACTION
The quantum forces normally have a very short range of
interaction. This range is confined to atomic dimensions.
Quantum interactions are observed on a macroscopic scale in
superconductors and superfluids. Superconductors only accept
currents that are integer multiples of one another.
Superfluid helium will spin in a small cup only at certain
rotational speeds. These low temperature phenomena vividly
demonstrate that the range of the quantum interaction has
increased to macroscopic dimensions. This effect can clearly
be interpreted as a tendency to merge.
Pg 7
GRAVITY
Gravity must exhibit the same general tendencies. The
length of the gravitational interaction must decrease in a
superconductor or superfluid by the same order of magnitude
that the length of the quantum interaction has increased.
No induced gravitational field, however, has ever been
detected emanating from a superfluid or superconductor.
Considering the mass to energy ratio and then the ratio
of mass to gravity, this is no wonder. The universal
gravitational potential is conserved in all mass energy
interactions. Any detectable induced gravitational field
can only be the result of a tremendous energy flow.
Energy flow rates of the required magnitude will never
be experimentally produced.
This author's model predicts that the length of the
near field gravitational interaction will increase at
cryogenic temperatures.
Pick Icon 2-3.
---------------
| \ |
| \ |
| / |
| / |
---------------
|------K -------|
Photon in a box model of matter
2
Icon 2-3 shows that the far "1/r " gravitational field results
from the superposition of two "1/r" fields. At distances
less that the length of the containment "K" the "1/r" field
predominates. "K" represents the length of a wavefunction.
In ordinary matter the wavefunctions extend to a maximum of
about one atomic diameter. Superconductors have very long
wavefunctions. A superconductive wavefunction extends along
the entire length of the superconductor. The near gravitational
field of a superconductor can extend for meters. In my attempts
to construct an antigravitational levitational device. I
applied pressure to a superconductor in an attempt to exploit
this effect.
Pg 8
I found that the near gravitational field of a superconductor
was too weak to be detected, let alone be utilized. In a
superconductor the length of the wavefunction "K" is the
distance at which the gravitational, the quantum, and the
electromagnetic fields interact directly with one another.
This is the interaction that zero point energy advocates are
attempting to exploit.
An experiment was done at Oxford that can be interpreted
to indicate that a far gravitational field has been induced.
In this experiment, an apparatus was constructed which
allowed superfluid liquid helium to flow through a set of
narrow channels from a high to a lower level. It was found
that the temperature of the fluid, after passing through the
narrow channels, spontaneously decreased. (2)
Ther effect of this cooling is know as the "mechano caloric
effect".
-----
|- - -| Helium
| |
||||||| Narrow channels
| |
| |
\ /
| | Dewar vessel
Fluid flow down
Heat flow up
Hot had flowed to cold. The entropy of the out flowing
fluid had decreased. The second law of thermodynamics
declares that entropy cannot spontaneously decrease. Hot
cannot flow to cold.
Present theory tries to account for this abnormal behavior
by stating that liquid helium is a mixture of two fluids each
with a different entropy. These two fluids are separated
upon passing through a small orifice. This is know as the
"two-fluid model". The two fluid model is flawed in that it
is impossible to have two fluids made of a group of
indistinguishable atoms. Any theory requiring the separation
to two fluids at an orifice is not valid after all of the fluid
has passed through the orifice.
Pg 9
A correct accounting of the missing entropy can be had by
taking into account the gravitational interaction. The
decrease of the entropy of the out flowing fluid is balanced
by the induction of a antigravitational field. This field
produces an irreversible expansion of the universe.
Superfluid helium tends to rise up into small tubes
and to climb up the upon the walls of a containment. When
climbing, the fluid exerts a negative pressure upon the walls
of its containment. A model was developed in chapter 10 of
this text. This model is based upon a relationship between
force, gravity, and entropy. According to the model the
direction of the force exerted upon the walls of a contaiment
determines the direction in which entropy will flow. Entropy
can decrease in systems capable of exerting a negative pressure.
Cryogenic zero point fluids can exert a negative pressure.
The entropy of a zero point system can decrease.
CONCLUSION
Faraday expected that a continuous magnetic field would
impose a continuous electric current. His experiments
demonstrated that only changing electromagnetic fields induce
other fields. If Faraday had done cryogenic experiments he
would had discovered that his original hypothesis was correct
and that magnetic fields do impose continuous electrical
currents. In chapter 3 of this text it was demonstrated,
on the basis of the conservation of momentum, that changing
fields must induce other fields. The relationship between
the forces changes in a zero point system. The altered
relationship permits genesis to occur.
An understanding of the gravity has been delayed for many
years by improper thought. In fact, the technology needed
to exploit the zero point relationship has been around for many
years. The induction of a gravitational field at low
temperatures was demonstrated in the 1930's, however, this
author is the first to correctly identify the result. Now
that gravity is understood on a theoretical basis
antigravitational technology can be developed.
This development will be of great economic and social importance.
3
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NOTES
1. "Elemenatry Antigravity" 1989 ISBN: 0-533-08334-6
2. K. Mendelssohn. THE QUEST FOR ABSOLUTE ZERO
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966
3. This author applied for a patent on an energy device based on
these ideas.
Serial # 06/824,530
Filing Date: 01/31/86
Examiner Rebsch, D.
Art Unit 212
The application was rejected due to the preliminary state of the
ideas.
// I hope you have enjoyed the material. There is much more
material along with much better graphics on my disk.
Comments appreciated.
Frank Znidarsic PE
fznidarsic@aol.com